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Nucleus and Ribosomes. By: Ryan Thomas Katie Thomas Nicholas Weaver Alexandra Farlow and Patrick Wagner. Chromosomes. Rod-like structures that result when chromatin condenses and coils Each species has a particular number of chromosomes that is passed on to the next generation

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nucleus and ribosomes

Nucleus and Ribosomes

By: Ryan Thomas

Katie Thomas

Nicholas Weaver

Alexandra Farlow and

Patrick Wagner

  • Rod-like structures that result when chromatin condenses and coils
  • Each species has a particular number of chromosomes that is passed on to the next generation
  • Found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, plant and animal cells, fungi, and protists
chromosome analogy
Chromosome Analogy
  • The chromosome could be compared to a computer using binary code
  • The computer uses 1's and 0's to code for processes
  • The chromosome uses cytosine, guanine, adenine, and thymine for cellular processes
  • The computer stores the code, just like a chromosome
function with other organelles
Function With Other Organelles
  • The Endoplasmic Reticulum synthesizes proteins from the mRNA from chromosomes
  • Chromosomes also code for tRNA (to carry amino acids) and rRNA (components of the ribosome) which all have to do with protein synthesis from the ER.
some diseases caused by chromosome malfunction
Some Diseases Caused by Chromosome Malfunction
  • Down Syndrome (Caused by the presence of all or part of a copy of the 21st chromosome)
  • Turner Syndrome (One female sex chromosome is missing or abnormal)
  • Cystic Fibrosis (Mutation of the 7q chromosome)
  • Color Blindness (X chromosome mutation)
nuclear pore
Nuclear Pore
  • The nuclear pore regulates the molecules going between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a cell.
  • One of the biggest protein complexes in the cell.
  • The nuclear pore is found in all eukaryotes
nuclear pore malfunctions
Nuclear Pore Malfunctions
  • As the nuclear pore ages it causes a loss of integrity in the nucleus. This means that the nuclear membrane does not function as well as it could. The substances that pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm are not as regulated as when the nuclear pore is in its best shape.
nuclear pore analogy
Nuclear Pore Analogy

Nuclear Pore:Nucleus :: Pores:Skin

  • Both the nuclear pore and the pores on our skin are a protective covering.
  • The nuclear pore regulate what goes in between the cytoplasm and nucleus of a cell, while pores on the skin also regulate the entrance and exit of bacteria and bodily fluids.
  • When the nuclear pore grows old it does not function well, just as the pores on our skin do when we get old and our pores are clogged up.
how does the nuclear pore work with other organelles
How does the nuclear pore work with other organelles?
  • The nuclear pore works with the nucleus to ensure that all the right substances with enter and exit the cell at the right time.
  • It also works with the cytoplasm in the same way as it does with the nucleus.


Protein Synthesizers




-If one protein malfunctions it can send a wave of dramatic effects on the body. One of these effects is mental retardation. The proteins are responsible for making the DNA codes, and in the case of mental retardation they have made a faulty enzyme in the code.

Another faulty code the proteins can produce can make a person albino.

A ribosome is a particle that is composed of protein and RNA and is the site of protein synthesis. It is composed of two subunits that work together to make proteins according to the RNA.

They are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (plants animals bacteria)

Inside the Cells:

-Messages from the nucleus are sent into the endoplasmic reticulum where the ribosomes are located.

The proteins are transferred to the golgi apparatus where the proteins are modified.

Ribosomes work along with most of the organelles because they make the proteins that they need to perform.

ribosome construction workers

Ribosome:Construction Workers

Ribosomes form proteins which act like the bricks to build a house.

They take orders from the RNA and Nucleus just as workers have to pay attention to the building plans and instructions from a forman.

The proteins made by Ribosomes act as a barrier from diseases just as a house is used to protect people from weather and diseases.



The Source of All Knowledge in the Cell

chromatin structure and function
Chromatin Structure and Function

Chromatin is composed of DNA, proteins called histones and other assorted components such as transcription factors. Chromatin contains the genetic information that guides the function of the cell and the creation of proteins.

DNA- Stores the genetic information to produce proteins.

Histones- Compacts the DNA into tight groups, saving space.

found where
Found Where?

Chromatin is found in animal, plant, fungi and protist cells.

Chromatin is not found in prokaryotic cells. DNA is 'naked' and not packaged with any proteins, therefore classifying it as simply DNA not chromatin.


Chromatin is opened and closed by chromatin remodeling ATPases. A misfunction of these cause several diseases including:

- embryonic lethality

-cause mutations that lead to cancer

chromatin is like
Chromatin is like...

Chromatin is like a staple holding a stack of important documents together.

-It binds the DNA together to save space

-stores the important information.

-it helps keep the DNA organized and allows it to function properly.

chromatin works with
Chromatin works with...

Chromatin works with other nuclear organelles by entering and exiting the nuclear membrane through nuclear pores. Chromatin also works with ribosomes by giving them genetic info to produce.

nucleolus function
Nucleolus Function
  • Primary function of the nucleolus is to assemble subunits which then come together to form the organelle known as the ribosomes in a Eukaryotic cell.
  • Because the nucleolus assembles the ribosomes it indirectly plays a large role in the synthesis of proteins.
  • Largest structure inside the boundaries of the nucleus.
  • The complex structural organization in cells has evolved during the transition period from anamniotes to amniotes.
  • Anamniotes are vertebrates which do not posses amnion.
  • Amniotes are creatures that lay eggs and have adapted themselves to the terrestrial environment.
where it is found
Where it is found!

The Nucleolus is found in all types of Eukaryotic cells such as plant, animal, protist and fungi cells.

It is found at the heart of the cell, in the center of the nucleolus.

diseases should it malfunction
Diseases should it malfunction...

A malfunctioning nucleolus is known to cause neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's, and could also be a cause of Parkinson's disease as well.

a nucleolus is like
A Nucleolus is like....

A nucleolus is like a manager of the cell which acts as the factory.

The ribosomes are the factory workers that constantly take orders from the nucleolus.

The nucleolus is constantly "hiring and training" new ribosomes just like new factory workers.

works with
Works with....

The nucleolus and its counter part the nucleus work with the entirety of the cell, and all the organelles present, however nucleolus mainly works with the DNA and RNA brought into the nucleus to make Ribosomes.