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Job Satisfaction

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  1. Job Satisfaction

  2. Definition of Job Satisfaction • The extent to which people like or dislike their jobs • People’s attitudes about their jobs • Affect: “I like the work” • Beliefs: “My job is interesting” • Behavioral tendencies: “I feel like going to work in the morning” • Distinguishable from: • morale • job involvement

  3. Why Study Job Satisfaction? • Humanitarian perspective: • People deserve to be treated fairly & with respect • Utilitarian perspective: • Organizations can function more effectively with a satisfied workforce

  4. Some Measurement Issues • Facet v. global measures • Facets of work are differentially weighted when employees make their assessments of JS (Locke, 1976) • Use of self-report data • Problems assoc. with measuring affect through self-report; self-insight? • How are self-reports of job conditions formed? • The creation of attitudes through their measurement • Lots of correlational research • Ok, but…

  5. Antecedents of Job Satisfaction • Job characteristics • Comparisons/discrepancies between current state & needs, perceptions of others, & prior experiences • Stable individual differences • Job stressors

  6. Job Characteristics Model • Support for GNS as a moderator • Support for job characteristics, but may not be a long-lasting effect (e.g., Hawthorne effect) • Job characteristics model may be too simplistic

  7. Comparison/Discrepancy Theories • Need theories (e.g., Maslow, Herzberg) • JS depends on the degree to which needs are fulfilled • Discrepancy theories (e.g., Locke) • JS depends on the difference between expectations/desires & what one receives • Also depends on the relative importance of various facets of work • Social information processing theories (Salancik & Pfeffer) • JS is a social construction that depends on prior experience & context • Bem’s Self-Perception Theory • Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory

  8. Individual Differences • Positive v. negative affectivity • The stability of JS over time • Vastly different perceptions of the same job • High correlation between JS & life satisfaction • Locus of control • Internals: • Take action • Higher performance • More advancement • Cognitive consistency • Other personality variables?

  9. Individual Differences, cont. • Person-organization fit (Kristof, 1996) • Complementary fit (I.e., adds what is missing) • Supplementary fit (I.e., is consistent with; matches) • Value, goal, & climate congruence is related to JS

  10. Job Stressors • Job stressor • A condition or event at work that requires an adaptive response • Job strain • The response to a job stressor, such as the emotion of anxiety or job dissatisfaction

  11. Correlates of Job Satisfaction • Other attitudes • Job performance • Withdrawal behaviors

  12. Other Attitudes • Life satisfaction • Spillover hypothesis • Feelings in one area of life affect feelings in other areas • Compensation hypothesis • People will compensate for dissatisfaction in one area of life by cultivating satisfaction in another • Segmentation hypothesis • People compartmentalize their lives, making work and nonwork areas separate • Organizational commitment • Job involvement • Frustration, anxiety, and tension

  13. Job Performance • Low positive r’s have been found between JS & job performance • Higher r’s for global than facet measures of JS • Job level as a moderator • What is the causal direction of the relationship? • More evidence that performance causes JS • Lawler & Porter found that performance leads to rewards which leads to JS • Job level as a moderator also supports this idea • Examining performance as multidimensional? • E.g., Organizational citizenship behavior & counterproductive behavior

  14. Withdrawal Behaviors • Low r between JS & absences • Absences have multiple causes • E.g., storm related absences • Relation between general attitudes & specific behaviors • Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein) • Skewed distribution of absences • Higher r between JS & turnover • Mobley’s model of the turnover process