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Job Satisfaction Unit. The emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. What is a concept map?. A visual representation of a knowledge structure A tool for organizing and representing knowledge Creativity in business thinking tool

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job satisfaction unit
Job Satisfaction Unit
  • The emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience
what is a concept map
What is a concept map?
  • A visual representation of a knowledge structure
  • A tool for organizing and representing knowledge
  • Creativity in business thinking tool
  • A tool to facilitate meaningful learning
    • Helps students make connections among a set of concepts and job satisfaction
what does a concept map look like
What does a concept map look like?
  • Various forms
  • A simple concept map on an individual’s knowledge of a cup of coffee might look like this:

ground up

coffee beans

naturally

sleep

have

contains

coffee

can inhibit

caffeine

can be

removed from

hot water

increase

alertness

contains

why complete maps
Why Complete Maps?
  • Help you appreciate others’ viewpoints and perspectives
  • Concept maps encourage you to organize and enhance your knowledge on any topic.
  • Concept maps help you learn new information by integrating each new idea into an existing body of knowledge.
  • See new connections & enhance creativity
issues related to job satisfaction
ISSUES RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION

1. What is job satisfaction and why is it important?

2. What is the status of job satisfaction in the U.S. today?

3. What are the controversies surrounding job satisfaction?

a. How much variation in performance is explained by

satisfaction?

b. Could job performance cause job satisfaction?

c. Is job satisfaction really an attitude?

4. What factors affect job satisfaction?

reasons for interest in job satisfaction
REASONS FOR INTEREST IN JOB SATISFACTION
  • 1. Value judgment
  • 2. Mental health
  • 3. Stress & physical health
  • 4. Public relations function
  • 5. Collegiality
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Lateness, Absenteeism & Turnover
  • Under Investigation
  • a. File fewer grievances
  • b. Have fewer accidents
  • Engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors & fewer counterproductive behaviors
  • Retire later
2 what is the status of job satisfaction
Americans are satisfied

Gallop polls report consistently high responses

4-point Gallup polls reconfirm

Americans are dissatisfied

Poll wording is flawed

Different operationali-

zations yield different results

• Still recent data suggest that “storm clouds” of change may be brewing

2. What is the Status of Job Satisfaction?
slide11

2008: 90% “completely” or “somewhat” satisfied

1997: 84%% (37% completely, 47% somewhat)

slide12

“If you could start your work life over again, would you choose the

same occupation again?”

Percent who would choose similar work again

(Want children to follow in footsteps)

Professional and White collarWorking Class

University professors Printers

Physicists Skilled auto workers

Biologists Skilled steel workers

Lawyers Textile workers

Journalists Unskilled auto workers

Other Other

job descriptive index
JOB DESCRIPTIVE INDEX

Measures satisfaction with the following, separately:

1. The work itself

2. Supervision

3. Pay

4. Coworkers

5. Opportunities for

advancement

employee job satisfaction using jdi dimensions over time
Employee Job Satisfaction Using JDI Dimensions over Time

Red entries traditionally the dimensions rated lowest

aSource: 2009 Employee Job Satisfaction: A survey report by SHRM including “somewhat satisfied” and “very satisfied”

bSource: 2012 Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement: A Research Report by SHRM including “somewhat satisfied” and “very satisfied”

3 what are the controversies surrounding job satisfaction
3. What are the controversies surrounding job satisfaction?

(a) How much variation in performance

is explained by satisfaction?

X% of the variance in

in job performance can

typically be explained by

job satisfaction

slide16

What is the relationship between job satisfaction

and job performance?

1. What were your expectations? How much variation in job performance should one factor like job satisfaction account for? What other factors likely explain most of the variation in job performance? Review conceptual maps.

2. On the other hand, the estimates suggesting that satisfaction and performance correlate only r =.3 (R2 = .09) may be underestimates because of measurement problems in job performance. (leniency and/or central tendency)

slide17

What is the relationship between job satisfaction

  • and job performance?
  • Specifically, some argue that low correlations between satisfaction & performance are “depressed” as a function of the “restriction-in-range” associated with job performance measures.
  • 4. Forced ranking systems not a solution. Welch’s“Rank and Yank”: 20% “A” players (outstanding), 70% “B” players (vital not visionary), and 10% “C” players (bottom feeders or in need of improvement)
slide18

Relationship between job sat & job performance

  • Forced ranking systems not a solution. Welch’s“Rank and Yank” system:
  • “A” Players “B” Players “C” Players
  • (outstanding) (vital not visionary) (bottom feeders)
  • TopMiddleNeeds Improvement
  • GE20% 70% 10%
  • Ford 10% 85% 5%
  • Enron used: 5% superior, 30% excellent, 30% strong,
  • 20% satisfactory, & 15% needs imp.
  • What are the problems with these perf. appraisals?
facts re forced distribution rating systems
Facts Re Forced Distribution Rating Systems*
  • 77% of companies believe PA ratings are too lenient
  • 20% of Fortune 100 use some form of FDRS
  • Little empirical research on effectiveness of FDRS and even less on rater reactions to using FDRS
  • Managers found FDRS more difficult and less fair than traditional rating systems. A consequence was managers’ decreased confidence in providing feedback to employees under FDRS.
  • Still, since FDRS may promote higher levels of performance, more research is needed. Recommend use only when there is high variability in job performance

* Schleicher et al. 2009

what are the controversies surrounding job satisfaction
(b) Could job perf. cause job satisfaction?

P S

Job Job

Performance Satisfaction

(c) Is job satisfaction really an attitude?

Satisfaction stable over time

May be more like a personality trait (& not subject to manager

influence)

Supported by identical twin reared apart data

What are the controversies surrounding job satisfaction?
determinants of job satisfaction based on research evidence
DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION(Based on Research Evidence)

Individual

Personality: self-esteem, stamina,

internal locus of control,

positive affectivity (disposition),

hope, and resilience

Status/seniority in the organization

Genetics ????

determinants of job satisfaction
DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Organizational/Job Related

Perceived fairness of rewards

Perceived quality of supervision

Decentralization of power

Pleasant physical working conditions

Job design

wright cropanzano 2000
Wright & Cropanzano (2000)
  • What is psychological well-being? How is it different from job satisfaction?
  • Because science seeks to understand and predict, authors provide extensive literature review.

-What do studies say about the relationship between job sat and performance?

-How and why should Ψwell-being predict job performance?

slide25

Morrow Concept Map: Indicators of Low Psychological Well-Being: Depression, Self-esteem, Pessimism

Low

Self-esteem

Low Ψ well-being and Motivation

Low

Performance

Depression

Pessimistic

Low Ψ well-being may also lead to:

Hypertension

Alcoholism

Drug Abuse

wright cropanzano 20001
Wright & Cropanzano (2000)
  • What are the hypotheses set forth for Study 1?
  • What was the sample in Study 1?
  • How were well-being, satisfaction and performance measured?
  • Were the hypotheses supported? Review Tables 1, 2 and 3
wright cropanzano 20002
Wright & Cropanzano (2000)
  • Why was a second study done?
  • What was the sample in Study 2?
  • Were the hypotheses supported in Study 2? Review Tables 4, 5 and 6
implications limitations
Implications & Limitations
  • Little support for the “happy worker is the productive worker” but considerablesupport for psychological well-being as a predictor of performance
  • Limited generalizability
  • Possible stereotyping??
  • How can managers acquire higher Ψ well-being employees?
wright 2010
Wright (2010)
  • Shows the progress of science as article reviews how Ψ well-being predicts job performance, employee health turnover, and ability to cope with stress. Emphasizes how job sat & Ψ well-being are resources employees can draw from.
  • What strategies increase Ψ well-being?
judge heller and mount 2002 article
Judge, Heller and Mount (2002) Article
  • 3rd meta-analysis. Further advances idea job sat may be a function of dispositional (e.g., personality) traits
  • What are the Big 5 personality traits and how are they hypothesized to be related to job sat?
  • What was the sample in this study? p. 532
  • Were the hypotheses supported? Table 1
  • How much variation in job sat can the Big 5 explain? Table 2.
  • How about life satisfaction? Figure 1
judge heller and mount 2002 article1
Judge, Heller and Mount (2002) Article
  • What importance would you attach to personality traits in making selection decisions?
  • Would you use personality to hire “for fit”?