Once Upon A Time… and Happily Ever Afters : A Review of the Fundamentals of Genetics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Once Upon A Time… and Happily Ever Afters : A Review of the Fundamentals of Genetics

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  1. Once Upon A Time…and Happily Ever Afters:A Review of the Fundamentals of Genetics

  2. Pinocchio: Truths and Tales

  3. Truth or Tale Mendel discovered predictable patterns in the inheritance of traits.

  4. Truth

  5. Truth or Tale Plants in Mendel’s P generation were all heterozygous.

  6. Tale…Homozygous

  7. Truth or Tale A dominantallele masks or hides the effect of a recessive allele.

  8. Truth

  9. Truth or Tale A Mendelianfactor is equivalent to an allele.

  10. Truth

  11. Truth or Tale Heterozygous individuals have two of the samealleles for a particular gene.

  12. Tale…different

  13. Truth or Tale A Punnett square represents the phenotype of an organism.

  14. Tale…genotype

  15. Truth or Tale A probability of 1/4 is equal to a probability of 75 percent.

  16. Tale…25%

  17. Truth or Tale The dominant allele for tallness in pea plants is represented by the letter t.

  18. Tale…T

  19. Truth or Tale • Mendel performed 82crosses and documented all his results.

  20. Tale…hundreds

  21. Truth or Tale Genetics is the branch of biology that involves the study of how different traits are transmitted from one generation to the next.

  22. Truth

  23. Mirror Mirror on the Wall, Who Is the Fairest of Them All?

  24. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? The scientific study of heredity is called a. meiosis. c. genetics. b. crossing-over. d. pollination.

  25. C

  26. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? Mendel obtained his P generation by allowing the plants to a. self-pollinate. c. assort independently. b. cross-pollinate. d. segregate.

  27. A

  28. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? What is the probability that the offspring of a homozygous dominant individual and a homozygous recessive individual will exhibit the dominant phenotype? a. 0.25 c. 0.75 b. 0.5 d. 1.0

  29. D

  30. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? The first filial (F1) generation is the result of a. cross-pollination among parents and the next generation. b. crosses between individuals of the parental generation. crosses between the offspring of a parental cross. d. self-fertilization between parental stock.

  31. B

  32. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? Which of the following is the designation for Mendel’s original pure strains of plants? a. P c. F2 b. F1 d. F3

  33. A

  34. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? A genetic trait that appears in every generation of offspring for Mendel’s experiments is called a. dominant. c. recessive. b. phenotypic. d. superior.

  35. A

  36. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? If an individual has two recessive alleles for the same trait, the individual is said to be a. homozygous for the trait. haploid for the trait. heterozygous for the trait. mutated.

  37. A

  38. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? How many different possible phenotypes can be produced by a pair of incomplete dominant alleles? a. 1 c. 3 b. 2 d. 4

  39. C

  40. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? In humans, having freckles (F) is dominant to not having freckles (f). The inheritance of these traits can be studied using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below. Refer to the illustration to the side. The genotype represented in box “1” in the Punnett square would a. be homozygous for freckles. b. have an extra freckles chromosome. c. be heterozygous for freckles. d. have freckles chromosomes.

  41. A

  42. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? The difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross is that monohybrid crosses involve traits for which only one allele exists, while dihybrid traits involve two alleles. monohybrid crosses involve self-pollination, while dihybrid crosses involve cross-pollination. monohybrid crosses involve one characteristic or gene; dihybrid crosses involve two characteristic or genes. dihybridcrosses require two Punnett squares; monohybrid crosses need only one.

  43. C

  44. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? Which of the following genotypes would you not expect to find among the offspring of a SsYy x ssyy test cross: a. ssyy d. ssYy b. SsYy e. SsYY c. Ssyy

  45. E

  46. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? The law of segregation states that a. alleles of a gene separate from each other during meiosis. b. different alleles of a gene can never be found in the same organism. c. each gene of an organism ends up in a different gamete. d. each gene is found on a different molecule of DNA.

  47. A

  48. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? The phenotype of an organism a. represents its genetic composition. b. reflects all the traits that are actually expressed. c. occurs only in dominant pure organisms. d. cannot be seen.

  49. B

  50. Who Is the Fairest of Them All? A reproductive process in which fertilization occurs within a single plant is ____________ a. cross pollination c. self pollination b. fertilization d. homo pollination