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Unit 4: Cell Division & Heredity PowerPoint Presentation
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Unit 4: Cell Division & Heredity

Unit 4: Cell Division & Heredity

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Unit 4: Cell Division & Heredity

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  1. Unit 4: Cell Division & Heredity Part 3 Ch. 14 & Ch. 15 Mendelian Genetics & Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

  2. I. Genetics As A Science • Genetics = Study of heredity • Heredity = How information gets transferred to us from our parents.

  3. II. Genetics Vocabulary • Trait: Characteristic that is different among individuals. Eye color, height, skin color

  4. II. Genetics Vocabulary • Cross: When 2 individuals mate. 2 trees, 2 dogs, etc.

  5. II. Genetics Vocabulary • Hybrid: Result of crossing individuals with different traits.

  6. III. Discovery of Genetics • Gregor Mendel: Used pea plants to explore heredity.

  7. III. Discovery of Genetics • Mendel concluded 2 things • “Factors” determine what organisms will be like . • Genes – determine traits 1. Height 2. Hair color

  8. III. Discovery of Genetics b. Each “factor” can come in different varieties. 1. Alleles- varieties of genes a. Hair color gene 1. Brown allele 2. Blonde allele 3. Red allele

  9. III. Discovery of Genetics • Mendel concluded 2 things… • Some alleles are “stronger” than others

  10. III. Discovery of Genetics • Law of Dominance: Some alleles are dominant & others are recessive. • Dominant: Will always be seen. • Recessive: Only seen if dominant is not there.

  11. IV. Mendel’s Work • Crossed a tall plant with a short plant. • P Generation = Original pair of plants. (Parents)

  12. IV. Mendel’s Work B. Results • All tall plants F1 = First set of offspring. (children)

  13. IV. Mendel’s Work • Curious about why none were short. 1. Crossed 2 plants from the F1. generation. Yes, mated 2 siblings!

  14. IV. Mendel’s Work D. Results 1. 75% Tall 25% Short F2 = offspring of the F1 generation. (grandchildren)

  15. V. Explaining the Outcomes • The allele for “shortness” didn’t disappear. B. The allele for “tallness” was dominant. How was the recessive allele able to be “recovered”?

  16. V. Explaining the Outcomes • Segregation: Alleles separate from each other during meiosis. • Gametes then combine differently during fertilization. T t T t T t T t T t T t t t T T

  17. VIII. More About Alleles A. Allele combinations 1. Have 2 alleles for each gene Height – Tall or short

  18. VIII. More About Alleles B. Each one represented by the first letter of the dominant allele: • Dominant = Uppercase • Recessive = Lowercase a. Height T = Tall (Dominant) t = Short (Recessive)

  19. VIII. More About Alleles a. If 2 of the SAME allele: HOMOZYGOUS TT = Tall tt = Short HomozygousHomozygous DominantRecessive

  20. VIII. More About Alleles b. If 2 DIFFERENT alleles: HETEROZYGOUS Law of dominance: If dominant is present, it will “cover” the recessive. T t = Tall

  21. IX. Looks Can Be Deceiving! • Phenotype: Physical appearance (What’s on the outside) White, Red • Genotype: Genetic makeup (What’s on the inside) RR, Rr, rr

  22. X. Punnett Squares • Diagrams for predicting results of any cross. Genotype of parent 1 Genotypes of offspring Genotype of parent 2

  23. XI. Single Trait Cross • A cross for 1 trait. 1. Hair color ONLY

  24. XI. Single Trait Cross Genotype of parent 1 T T Genotype of parent 2 t t T T t t

  25. XI. Single Trait Cross Results: All 4 combinations are the same. Results vary depending on parents! T T T t T t t t T t T t

  26. XI. Monohybrid Cross F1 Cross: Cross 2 of the “kids”. Results: 1:2:1 Genotypic Ratio 3:1 Phenotypic Ratio T t TT T t T t T t t t

  27. XI. Monohybrid Cross • RULE: According to the Mendel’s Laws, A monohybrid cross of F1 will ALWAYS result in 3:1 p ratio and 1:2:1 g ratio. • If not… something else is acting. - Alternate types of dominance

  28. XII. Dominant/Recessive?? Simple rules of dominance/recessive don’t always hold true. 1. Incomplete dominance: Both alleles present = Intermediate

  29. XII. Dominant/Recessive?? 2. Codominance: Both alleles present = Both appear Brown & White both dominant = both colors appear

  30. XII. Dominant/Recessive?? 3. Multiple alleles: More than 2 alleles for 1 gene Blood Groups

  31. XII. Dominant/Recessive?? 4. Lethal Dominant Traits Monohybrid cross will yield a 2:1 ratio of dominant to recessive. H.D. not viable so does not count in the total offspring. T t TT T t T t T t t t

  32. Sex Chromosomes 44 Autosomes & 2 Sex chromosomes a. Male: 46,XY b. Female: 46,XX

  33. Sex Chromosomes 3. Sperm = X or Y 4. Egg = X only Female X X XX XX 50% female 50% male X Male XY XY Y

  34. Sex-Linked Genes Found on the sex chromosomes, X or Y. Y-linked traits = “maleness” mostly X-linked traits = many traits - Colorblindness

  35. Sex-Linked Genes Males = Y X All X-linked traits will be expressed in males. Only 1 X chromosome, so either YES or NO! Females = X X If trait is dominant, it will be expressed if 1 copy is present. If trait is recessive, it will be expressed if present on BOTH X chromosomes.

  36. More on X Chromosomes Barr body: One of the X chromosomes in females “turns off” during early development. 2. Only in females; Males need the X!! 3. No baby ever born without an X

  37. XIII. Two Trait Cross • A cross that looks at 2 traits. 1. R = right handed r = left handed 2. D = Dimples d = no dimples

  38. The Testcross • A person has brown hair, and brown hair is dominant. How can we tell the genotype? • Testcross: crossing an unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive. • h.r. will always have KNOWN genotype. • gg jj kk ee

  39. The Testcross • If homozygous dominant: • BB x bb = ALL Bb (all brown hair) • If heterozygous: • Bb x bb = HALF Bb, Half bb (half brown, half blonde)

  40. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R r D d Genotype of parent 2 = R r D d • Figure out the combinations for each parents’ gametes.

  41. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R rD d FIRST R r X D d R D

  42. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R rD d OUTSIDE R r X D d R d

  43. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R rD d INSIDE R r X D d rD

  44. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R rD d LAST R r X D d rd

  45. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 1 = R rD d Gamete combinations = R D R d rD rd

  46. XII. Dihybrid Cross Genotype of parent 2 = R rD d Same genotype, same gamete combinations = R D R d rD rd

  47. XII. Dihybrid Cross 2. Make a Punnett square: 16 possibilities

  48. XII. Dihybrid Cross 3. Parents’ possible gametes R D R d r D r d R D R d r D r d

  49. XII. Dihybrid Cross 4. Perform Crosses R D R d r D r d RRDD R D RRDd RrDD RrDd R d RRDd RRdd Rrdd RrDd r D RrDd rrDD rrDd RrDD r d Rrdd rrDd rrdd RrDd