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Fundamentals of Project Management
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  1. Fundamentals of Project Management Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary

  2. Day 1 Game Introduction PMI stuff Step 1 - Define phase Step 2 - Plan phase Sequence activities Time estimate Day 2 Cost estimate Step 3 - Organize phase Select team and PM Step 4 - Control phase Step 5 - Close out phase Schedule

  3. References • This section is based on: • The 5-Phased Project Management- A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide by Joseph Weiss and Robert K. Wysocki • Construction Project Administration by Edward R. Fisk • Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide, http://www.pmi.org • Instructors’ notes • Note: Some material is presented in several different formats to exemplify ways of approaching the tools and techniques

  4. Game • Your company is to build a single span bridge using Lego bricks. The span of the bridge is 90 cm and the centre point must be at least 10 cm higher than the base • Bridge must be self-standing and stable enough to be measured • Time is of the essence to the client and to your company

  5. The Blind Men/Women and the Elephant • Strong opinions • Each is partly right • All were wrong • Not one of them saw the elephant • The moral of the story from a project management perspective… • Many experience or read about an aspect or element of project management and think they know it ALL • Accidental Project Managers are out there in great numbers

  6. Your job! Learning Objectives • Project Management Basics • 9 Knowledge areas • Tools and technique • When and why you use them • Business and social aspects of project management • Avoid becoming an Accidental Project Manager • The session will not turn you into instant project managers • Begin to see more of the PM “elephant”

  7. Agenda • PART 1: Basic concepts • What is project and project management • Key terms and concepts • Reasons for project failure/success • PART 2: Technical aspects • 9 project management knowledge areas • Inputs, processes, outputs • Sample tools and techniques

  8. What is a project? • A specific, finite task to be accomplished • Can be of a long or short term duration • Can be large or small task

  9. Projects Vary in Size and Scope • NASA shuttle launch • Building a boat • Building a hospital • Building renovation and & space modification • Planning a party or wedding • Organizing the Olympic games • Developing a new software program • Getting a university degree • Company mergers

  10. Constant communication across organizational boundaries Many people involved, across several functional areas Sequenced events Goal oriented Has an end product or service Multiple priorities Complex and numerous activities Unique, one-time set of events Deadlines Start and end dates Identifiable stakeholders Limited resources and budget Project Characteristics

  11. When is a Project a Project? • A task or set of work assignments may be done by one or more persons using a simple “to do” list • A task become a project when the characteristics of a project begin to dominate and overwhelm individuals • Unable to meet deadlines, budgets and corporate expectations

  12. Project Management • Project management is a method and/or set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating and controlling work activities to reach a desired result on time, within budget, and according to the project specifications

  13. Slack Monte Carlo Analysis PCR EAC Scope creep Network diagram Charter Variance reports MSProject CPM BCWP, ACWP, ACWS, BCWS Float S-Curve MS Project Control charts CPI, SPI WBS OBS, RAM Gantt Chart PERT Chart Earned value RACI PMP ABT Workbench

  14. What is Project Management? • Tools/techniques • Processes and methodology • More than time, cost and scope • Hard and soft skills • A discipline evolving towards a profession

  15. Business and Social Aspects of Project Management • Hard and soft skills • Technical aspects of project management • Interpersonal skills • Influence • Politicking • Negotiation

  16. Project Management • Projects and project management are about people and teamwork • Who does what? • Who takes what risk? • Who else is involved or interested/affected?

  17. Project Management Challenges • Lack of a common understanding on the question “What is project management???” • Managing stakeholders, expectations, teams, projects, uncertainty • Measuring project management results • Methodology issues

  18. Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?) • Improve project/program/firm performance as measured by efficiency, effectiveness • Competitive advantage through competency • Be more “Successful” Because management said so

  19. Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?) • Proactive vs. reactive • Root out ill-conceived, directionless projects • Increase visibility by providing roadmaps Because of what marketing/sales promised the client

  20. Project Management Team • Project Sponsor(s) • Decision maker, funder, champion • Project Manager • Manages the big picture • Project Leads • Manage parts of a project

  21. Project Management Team • Project Team • Work on specific tasks • Stakeholders • Vested interests • Many of them • Keep them happy

  22. Major Causes of Project Failure • Projects fail for the following reasons: • The project is a solution in search of a problem • Only the project team is interested in the result • No one is in charge • There is no project structure • The plan lacks detail

  23. Major Causes of Project Failure • Projects fail for the following reasons: • The project has insufficient budget and/or resources • Lack of team communication • Straying from original goal • The project is not tracked against the plan

  24. Major Causes of Project Success • Stakeholders are identified • Stakeholders expectations are known and met • Senior Management support • There is a clearly stated purpose and a sound plan • Goal and objectives are understood and communicated

  25. Major Causes of Project Success • A constructive goal-oriented culture • Technically competent team • Effective (and committed) team • Excellent communication • Trust

  26. Tools & techniques are interchangeable between phases Introduction • PART 1: Basic concepts • What is project management • Key terms and concepts • Reasons for project failure/success • PART 2: Technical aspects • 9 project management knowledge areas • Inputs, processes, outputs • Sample tools and techniques Use them early & often in the project

  27. Procurement Quality Risk Management Integration Project Management Knowledge Areas • Scope • Time • Cost • Human Resources • Communication INTEGRATION

  28. Knowledge Areas and Key Terms • A project manager juggles 9 + balls (knowledge areas) and many tools and techniques

  29. KA1 Scope Management • Initiate the project • Feasibility, market, customer or business need • Environmental analysis, business case • Project selection practices and management decision practices • Project link to the firm’s strategy or corporate goals

  30. KA1 Scope Management • Initiate the project • Identify the project manager • Develop a charter • Formally recognize the existence of the project • Include the business need and product description, constraints and assumptions • Approval to proceed • Funding, authority, sponsor

  31. Charter links • http://web.mit.edu/pm/devcharter.html • http://www.cio-dpi.gc.ca/emf/solutions/ProjectCharterGuide/CharterGuide e.html • http://csintranet.csd.sc.edu/smartstreampro/sschartr.html

  32. Charter links • http://www.pmi.org/standards/wbscharter.htm • http://www.virginia.edu/~iscat/PROJECT%20CHARTER.html • http://www.stanford.edu/group/AIS-proj/projectcharter.html

  33. Scope Management • Plan and define the scope in detail • Conduct a cost/benefit analysis, consider alternatives, get expert opinion and review historical databases, brainstorm • What is in scope? What is out of scope? What are the criteria for completing phases?

  34. Scope Management • Plan and define the scope in detail • Develop a work breakdown structure (WBS) • Create a scope statement with assumptions and constraints • Project justification, product description, deliverables, success criteria, scope management plan • Use for future project decisions

  35. Scope Management • Verify the scope • What is the process and criteria for accepting the scope of work delivered? • Work results and documents • Inspection • Acceptance form • Control the scope • Performance reports, change requests, issues management form, scope management plan, corrective action, lessons learned

  36. Scope Tips • Be inclusive – involve stakeholders • Work on securing and maintaining their commitment to the project • Commitment: funding, approvals • Spend more time planning the project…then follow it (with updates of course)

  37. Scope Tips • Define project success and communicate it • Steering committee with authority and decision making power • Supportive and decisive sponsor

  38. KA2 Time Management • Purpose: Create a realistic schedule with the team • Identify the activities (tasks) • Activities are action steps (HOW) and different from deliverables that are tangible results (WHAT) • Use the WBS and scope statement • Develop activity lists and revise the WBS • Sequence activities • Consider dependencies

  39. Time Management • Estimate durations (time) • Top down, bottom up estimates, Monte Carlo simulations • Estimating formulae (PERT estimates) • Expert opinion • Consider resource capabilities • Look at similar projects • Develop the schedule (Gantt chart) • Document assumptions and decisions • Use project management scheduling software e.g. MS Project

  40. Estimating formulae • PERT Estimate (weighted average) • [Pessimistic + (4 x Likely) + Optimistic]/6 • Pessimistic time to get to work = 30 min • Optimistic time to get to work = 10 min • Likely time to get to work = 15 minutes • PERT Estimate = 30 + (4x15) + 10/6 • 100/6=16.6 = 17 min

  41. MS Project HELP • Http://www.officeupdate.microsoft.com/welcome/project.asp • Http://support.microsoft.com/directory/ • Http://www.woodyswatch.com • Http://www.msproject.com

  42. Planning & Scheduling Software • http://www.sea.net.au/project_management/scheduling_tools/ • http://www.projectkickstart.com/html/psoftware.htm • http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/dwfarthi/projman.htm

  43. Time Management • Control the schedule • Performance reports, change requests, time management plan, corrective action, lessons learned • E.g. baseline Gantt chart and then update • Frequency • Roles and responsibilities • Control techniques e.g. meetings, 1:1

  44. KA3 Cost Management • Plan resources (people, equipment, materials) • Consider WBS, scope statement, organizational policies, staff pool • Identify resource requirements • Cost centers at Your company? • Time is money

  45. Cost Management • Cost budgeting • Resource leveling • Cost baseline • Control costs • Performance reports, change requests, cost management plan, corrective action, lessons learned • e.g. budgeted, actual, variance (with explanation)

  46. Measure twice, cut once Time and Cost Tips • Its OK to ask. Talk to subject matter experts • Avoid single point estimates, use validated range estimates • Factor in the learning curve, resource productivity, experience level etc.

  47. Time and Cost Tips • Use the appropriate tools, techniques, rules of thumb • Document assumptions for estimates • Negotiate

  48. KA4 Quality Management • Plan for quality • Quality product and quality project management practices • Quality standards • Conform to specifications (project produces what it said it would) • Fitness for use (satisfy needs) • Prevention vs. inspection • Plan, do, check, act • Benchmark, checklists, flow charts, cause/effect diagrams

  49. Quality Management • Quality management plan • Organizational structure, processes, resources, procedures, responsibilities to ensure quality plan is implemented • Quality metrics • Checklists • Quality Assurance • Follow the quality management plan, audits, improvements