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Hybridization

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  1. Hybridization 2 - : : Aspartame 4 : 1 3 - : : + 5 - 1 3 bonds, 1 lone pair sp3 2 2 bonds, 2 lone pair sp2 3 4 bonds, 0 lone pair sp2 4 2 bonds, 2 lone pair sp3 5 4 bonds, 0 lone pair sp3 Which are polar?

  2. Alkanes C H n 2n+2 all C are sp3 hybridized  bonds n root suffix formula 3 prop ane C3H8 4 but ane C4H10 5 pent ane C5H12 6 hex ane C6H14 7 hept ane C7H16 8 oct ane C8H18 9 non ane C9H20 10 dec ane C10H22 1 meth ane C H 4 2 eth ane C2H6

  3. Alkanes compound b.p.(Co) m.w. CH4 16 -164 C2H6 30 -88.6 C3H8 44 -42.1 C4H10 58 -0.5 C5H12 72 +36.0 n = 1-4 gases n = 5-15 liquids n > 15 solids

  4. d) LDF Alkanes IMF = q1q2 n = 1-4 gases ____ r n = 5-15 liquids IMF = a) ionic b) dipole-dipole c) H-bonding d) LDF n > 15 solids q # electrons instantaneous dipole moments - + + -

  5. IMF = q1q2 r ____ Alkanes compound b.p. m.w. 72 36.1 72 27.9 72 9.5 structural isomers different shape same formula r  branching

  6. Reactions of Alkanes combustion + __ O2 __ CO2 + __ H2O __ C3H8 5 3 4 exothermic reaction combustion with insufficient O2 __ C3H8 + __ O2 __ CO + __ H2O 4 3 7/2 improperly vented spaces and cigarettes

  7. Reactions of Alkanes Substitution of halogens h Cl2 2Cl. step 1 initiation propagation step 2 Cl.+ CH4 CH3. + HCl step 3 CH3.+ Cl2 CH3Cl + Cl. propagation step 4 Cl.+ Cl.Cl2 termination get a mixture of chlorinated methanes

  8. Halogenation of Alkanes methane CH3Cl chloro methyl chloride   di CH2Cl2 chloromethane methylene chloride  CHCl3 tri chloromethane chloroform tetra  CCl4 chloromethane carbon tetrachloride all liquids at room temperature methane is gas e- rich Cl increases LDF dipole moments Which are soluble in H2O? polar solvent

  9. Nomenclature 1. Pick longest C chain as parent 2. Number C beginning at end with first branch 3. Identify branching substituents Assign each a number 4. Use commas to separate numbers hyphens to separate numbers from names 5. Alphabetize substituents

  10. Nomenclature Structural isomers of C5H12 I. III. 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 II. 1 1 2 3 I. pentane II. 2- methyl butane III. 2,2- di methyl propane

  11. Nomenclature R = “alkyl” group 1o 3o primary carbon tertiary carbon 4o 2o secondary carbon quaternary carbon

  12. H Nomenclature “common” names to learn: iso propyl alphabetized as i sec- butyl alphabetized as b iso butyl alphabetized as i tert- butyl alphabetized as b