Hybridization Honors ChemistryMrs. Coyle
Hybrization of Orbitals • The merging of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of hybrid orbitals. • Analogy: Mixing red and white pigment to form pink.
Example: Unhybridized Outer Orbitals of Carbon ↓__ 2s2 2p2
Why does carbon form four bonds with other atoms? • This can be explained with the model of hybridization of orbitals.
The s orbital merges with the threep orbitals to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals that are identical. ____ sp3 sp3 sp3 sp3 Hybridized Orbitals of Carbon in forming Methane
Outer Orbitals of Carbon ↓ _ _ 2s2 2p2 Unhybridized Carbon Hybridized Carbon _ _ _ _ sp3 sp3 sp3 sp3
The four sp3 orbitals are arranged in a tetrahedral shape. Each hybrid sp3 orbital contains one electron and is available to bond with another atom. Hybridized Carbon Orbitals http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/methane_td.jpg
Four hydrogen atoms, each having an s orbital, overlap with each of the sp3 orbitals. Each of these bonds is called a σ (sigma) bond. Methane 109.5o http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/methane_td.jpg
Hybridization of Orbitals Animation • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/hybrv18.swf
σ (sigma) bond • A covalent bond formed by the overlap of orbitals along the bond axis end to end. • A sigma bond can be formed by the overlap of: • s and p orbitals • two p orbitals • two hybrid orbitals • an s orbital and a hybrid orbital
π (pi bond) • A covalent bond formed by the parallel (side by side) overlap of two p orbitals.
Ethylene (Ethene) C2H4 • Each carbon atom forms: • three hybrid sp2 orbitals that lie on the same plane at 120o • and a third p orbital that is lying perpendicular to the plane
Ethylene (Ethene) C2H4 http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/fig/ethene.gif
Ethylene (Ethene) C2H4 http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/ethylene_bonding.jpg
Ethene (Ethylene), C2H4 • The double bond between the two carbon atoms is made up of a sigma bond and a pi bond. • The pi bond is made up of the parallel overlap of the p orbitals. • The sigma bond is made up of the end to end overlap of the sp2 orbitals.
Double Bond • A double bond is made up of a sigma bond and a pi bond.
Acetylene (Ethyne), C2H2 • The carbon atoms forms: • two hybrid sp orbitals • two p orbitals.
Acetylene (Ethyne), C2H2 http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/acetylene_bonds.jpg
Triple Bond • Is made up of a sigma bond and two pi bonds.
Benzene, C6H6 http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/molecule_gallery/04_aromatics/benzene_04.gif
Benzene, C6H6 • The p orbitals can overlap forming a pi bond on both sides and therefore a circular orbital forms around the whole ring.
Gallery of Molecules • http://webpages.dcu.ie/~pratta/jmgallery/JGALLERY.HTM