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Hybridization. IB Chemistry II Internal Assessment Cook. Hybridization. Atomic oribital overlap to form two types of covalent bonds: Sigma Bonds Pi bonds VSEPR: The shape of the molecule is determined by repulsion between electrons

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hybridization

Hybridization

IB Chemistry II

Internal Assessment

Cook

hybridization1
Hybridization
  • Atomic oribital overlap to form two types of covalent bonds:
        • Sigma Bonds
        • Pi bonds
  • VSEPR:
    • The shape of the molecule is determined by repulsion between electrons
    • Once we know the lewis structure of a molecule we can predict exactly how the bonds will be orientated with respect to each other in space.
biochemical reactions vsepr
Biochemical Reactions/VSEPR
  • Lewis structures offer critical features of a substance and biochemical reactions depend on the precise ‘fit’ between the enzyme which controls the rate of reaction and the reacting molecule.
  • Predictions of molecular shapes are based on valence shell electron pair replusion
    • This states that electrons pairs found in the outer energy level or valence shell of atoms repel each other and thus position themselves as far apart as possible
vsepr
VSEPR
  • The following points will help you apply this theory to predict the shape of molecules:
    • The repulsion applies to both bonding and non-bonding pairs of electrons
    • Double and triple bonds are orientated together and so behave in terms of repulsion as a single unit known as a negative charge center.
    • The total number of charge centers around the central atom determines the geometrical arrangement of electrons
    • The shapes of molecules is determined by the angles between bonded atoms
    • Non-bonding pairs of electrons (lone pairs) have higher concentration of charge than a bonding pair because they are not shared between two atoms and so they cause more repulsion than bonding pairs. The repulsion decreases in the following order
how repulsion decreases
How Repulsion decreases
  • Lone-pair-lone pair>lone pair-bonding pair>bonding pair-bonding pair
  • It works like this:
    • Strongest repulsion: Lone pair-lone pair
                  • ` lone pair-bonding pair
    • Weakest repulsion: bonding pair-bonding pair
species with 2 negative charge centers
Species with 2 negative charge centers
  • Molecules with 2 with 2 charge centers will position at 180 degrees to each other. The molecule will therefore have a linear shape
    • Examples
      • BeCl2
      • CO2
      • C2H2
species with 3 negative charges centers
Species with 3 negative charges centers
  • BF3
  • HCHO
  • NO3-
  • Try this example:
    • SO2
    • First write out lewis structure
    • How many charge centers do you see?
    • 1, 2 or 3?
species with 4 charge centers
Species with 4 charge centers

Molecules with 4 charge centers will position themselves at 109.5 degree giving a tetrahederal

CH4

NH4+

Practice drawing lewis structures for the above and indicate the charge centers