hybridization n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hybridization PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 9

Hybridization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Hybridization. IB Chemistry II Internal Assessment Cook. Hybridization. Atomic oribital overlap to form two types of covalent bonds: Sigma Bonds Pi bonds VSEPR: The shape of the molecule is determined by repulsion between electrons

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Hybridization' - hanzila

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


IB Chemistry II

Internal Assessment


  • Atomic oribital overlap to form two types of covalent bonds:
        • Sigma Bonds
        • Pi bonds
  • VSEPR:
    • The shape of the molecule is determined by repulsion between electrons
    • Once we know the lewis structure of a molecule we can predict exactly how the bonds will be orientated with respect to each other in space.
biochemical reactions vsepr
Biochemical Reactions/VSEPR
  • Lewis structures offer critical features of a substance and biochemical reactions depend on the precise ‘fit’ between the enzyme which controls the rate of reaction and the reacting molecule.
  • Predictions of molecular shapes are based on valence shell electron pair replusion
    • This states that electrons pairs found in the outer energy level or valence shell of atoms repel each other and thus position themselves as far apart as possible
  • The following points will help you apply this theory to predict the shape of molecules:
    • The repulsion applies to both bonding and non-bonding pairs of electrons
    • Double and triple bonds are orientated together and so behave in terms of repulsion as a single unit known as a negative charge center.
    • The total number of charge centers around the central atom determines the geometrical arrangement of electrons
    • The shapes of molecules is determined by the angles between bonded atoms
    • Non-bonding pairs of electrons (lone pairs) have higher concentration of charge than a bonding pair because they are not shared between two atoms and so they cause more repulsion than bonding pairs. The repulsion decreases in the following order
how repulsion decreases
How Repulsion decreases
  • Lone-pair-lone pair>lone pair-bonding pair>bonding pair-bonding pair
  • It works like this:
    • Strongest repulsion: Lone pair-lone pair
                  • ` lone pair-bonding pair
    • Weakest repulsion: bonding pair-bonding pair
species with 2 negative charge centers
Species with 2 negative charge centers
  • Molecules with 2 with 2 charge centers will position at 180 degrees to each other. The molecule will therefore have a linear shape
    • Examples
      • BeCl2
      • CO2
      • C2H2
species with 3 negative charges centers
Species with 3 negative charges centers
  • BF3
  • HCHO
  • NO3-
  • Try this example:
    • SO2
    • First write out lewis structure
    • How many charge centers do you see?
    • 1, 2 or 3?
species with 4 charge centers
Species with 4 charge centers

Molecules with 4 charge centers will position themselves at 109.5 degree giving a tetrahederal



Practice drawing lewis structures for the above and indicate the charge centers