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Cause and Effect

Cause and Effect. Cause & Effect is a major area of logical reasoning topic. Usually in such questions the students are asked to determine whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some other event.

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Cause and Effect

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  1. Cause and Effect

  2. Cause & Effect is a major area of logical reasoning topic. • Usually in such questions the students are asked to determine whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some other event. • The idea behind putting these questions is to ascertain the analytical and logical reasoning ability of the students.

  3. An event does not happen automatically but there is a definite cause behind it. The causes are conditions under which these events happen. The scientific view of cause is one where: 1. It must be a scientifically proven fact that the cause leads to the said effect. 2. The said effect should be a logical consequence of the said cause. There may be several necessary conditions for the occurrence of an event and that they must all be included in the sufficient condition.

  4. Immediate Cause: An immediate cause means a cause that immediately precedes the effect. Immediate cause are the most proximate in time, to the effect. Principal Cause: The principal cause is the main and the most important reason behind the effect. Independent Cause: An independent cause means a cause that does not have any relationship with the given statement.

  5. Rule: • Cause is always antecedent. • Naturally the cause will occur before the effect. • Hence, if two events are given then the effect that is chronologically antecedent to the other one can only be regarded as a possible cause.

  6. Format of the problem: Statements: 1. Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth. 2. Standard of living among the middle class society is constantly going up since part of few years.

  7. Directions: A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect. B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect. C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes. D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes. E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause. Ans (B) Since the standard of living among the middle class society is constantly going up so Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth. Ans (2) Since the standard of living among the middle class society is constantly going up so Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.

  8. Statements: 1. The government has decided to make all the information related to primary education available to the general public. 2. In the past, the general public did not have access to all these information related to primary education.

  9. Directions: A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect. B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect. C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes. D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes. E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause. Ans (B): The government must have seen the unawareness of the people as a strong factor in the primary education programme being not successful. The steps indicated in I must, thus have been sought for as a remedy for the same.

  10. Practice Questions: Directions: A. Statement A is the cause and statement B is its effect. B. Statement B is the cause and statement A is its effect. C. Both the statements A and B are independent causes. D. Both the statements A and B are effects of independent causes. E. Both the statements A and B are effects of some common cause.

  11. 1. Statement (A): Indonesia suffered a major earth quake today. Statement (B): The term of the Indonesian prime Minister ends by December. Ans: C 2. Statement (A): Bank perceive huge business opportunities in the insurance segment. Statement (B): As many as 11 nationalized banks are entering into the lucrative insurance market. Ans: A

  12. 3. Statement (A): The shortage of employable talent has become severe. Statement (B): There are more job opportunities than there are qualified professionals. Ans: A 4. Statement (A): Recently, an Air India Airbus was grounded in Delhi because of a technical snag. Statement (B): Air India faces a severe shortage of maintenance engineers. Ans: B

  13. 5. Statement (A): Police authority has recently increased vigil during the evening hours in the locality. Statement (B): There has been considerable reduction in the incidents of petty crimes in the locality. Ans: A

  14. 6. Statement (A): The committee appointed by the Government on the fee structure of the professional courses has drastically reduced the fees of various courses in comparison to those charged in the last year. Statement (B): The parents of aspiring students seeking admission to professional courses had launched a severe agitation protesting against the high fees charged by the professional institutes and the admission process was delayed considerably. Ans: B

  15. 7. Statement (A): Large numbers of people have fallen sick after consuming sweets from a particular shop in the locality. Statement (B): Major part of the locality is flooded and has become inaccessible to outsides. Ans: D

  16. 8. Statement (A): The life today is too fast, demanding all full of variety in all aspects which at times leads to stressful situation. Statement (B): Number of suicide cases among teenagers is on increase. Ans: E

  17. 9. Statement (A): The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of cell phones inside the college premises. Statement (B): Majority of the teachers of the college signed a joint petition to the university complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone ring tones inside the classrooms. Ans: B

  18. 10. Statement (A): Majority of people residing in the locality have decided to protest against the municipality authority's decision to allow construction of a shopping mall in the locality. Statement (B): Many shopping malls have been opened all over the city in the recent time. Ans: B

  19. 11. Statement (A): The Government has reduced the prices of petroleum products by five percent a week after increasing the prices by ten percent. Statement (B): The rate of inflation dropped marginally during the last week. Ans: D

  20. 12. Statement (A): There was a huge rush of people to the temple last Sunday the 15th of the month. Statement (B): The temple authority had decided to close down the temple for repairs from 17th of the month. Ans: B

  21. 13. Statement (A): Large number of people living in the low lying areas has been evacuated during the last few days to safer places. Statement (B): The Government has rushed in relief supplies to the people living in the affected areas. Ans: E

  22. 14. Statement (A): The Reserve Bank of India has recently put restrictions on few small banks in the country. Statement (B): The small banks in the private and co-operative sector in India are not in a position to withstand the competitions of the bigger banks in the public sector. Ans: B

  23. 15. Statement (A): The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months. Statement (B): The crude oil prices in the International market have gone up substantially in the last few months. Ans: C

  24. 16. Statement (A): The performance of Indian sports persons in the recently held Olympics could not reach the level of expectation the country had on them. Statement (B): The performance of Indian sports person in the last Asian games was far better than any previous games. Ans: E

  25. 17. Statement (A): Rural and semi-urban areas in the country have been suffering due to load-shedding for quite some time. Statement (B): If the Government is not able to overcome the power crisis, load-shedding will be extended even to the urban areas. Ans: E

  26. 18. Statement (A): The Government has increased rates of petrol and diesel by 10% from the immediate effect. Statement (B): Oil producing countries have decided to increase 10% of production on crude oil from the last quarter. Ans: D

  27. 19. Statement (A): The vegetable prices in the local market have increases manifold during the past few days. Statement (B): Incessant rains have created flood like situation in most rural parts of the State. Ans: B

  28. 20. Statement (A): Police had resorted to lathi-charge to disperse the unruly mob from the civic headquarters. Statement (B): The civic administration has recently hiked the property tax of the residential buildings by about 30 percent. Ans: D

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