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Cause and Effect

Outline. PatternLogicAvoid Generalization Avoid vague terms or unexamined premises. Pattern of Argumentation

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Cause and Effect

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    1. Cause and Effect In Argumentation

    3. Pattern of Argumentation –a suggestion A. Introduction Arousing interest + emotion appeal; State your position. B. Body Clarify your major argument, and then give sufficient reasons to support your position. Indicate one or two of the more important arguments against your position. Refute the positions you have just stated. Present additional arguments in support of your position.

    4. Pattern of Argumentation –a suggestion (2) C. Conclusion Restate your position on the issue. Present an emotional appeal for your position, perhaps warning what might happen if your position is not accepted.

    5. Pattern e.g. 1 for Cohabitation Blanket Relationship Emancipation Relationship Convenience Relationship Testing Relationship How do we develop these ideas to support cohabitation? If the premise is c. for mutual understanding Major Causes: Love + Convenience Two possible extreme: Emancipation Relationship & Blanket Relationship For whatever reasons, it is a chance to test if the relationship will last.

    6. Pattern e.g. 2 Against killing stray dogs Against religious spirit disobeys the humanity. a waste of our economical resources in the society spend limited money on the medical expense for curing those sick stray dogs, and then ask for some kind hearted people to foster them

    7. Faulty Logic? Simplify the issue; Failure to account for the various reasons increasing divorce Rate ? college couples’ cohabitation

    8. Faulty Logic? Faulty connection In fact, personally I think that cohabitation is a way to shirk the duties of marriage but to enjoy the benefits of marriage. However, when two of young students decide to live together, they have to think about the results beforehand but not just enjoy the present time. Nowadays, we can see the rate of cohabitation of student couples increase and it shows some signs for us and is worthy to discuss this problem.

    9. Clear introduction of problems; Development by gradation (introduction) Nowadays, we can see the rate of cohabitation of student couples increase and it shows some signs? for us and is worthy to discuss this problem. (lack of commitment, recklessness) In fact, personally I think that cohabitation is a way to shirk marital duties involved in making a lifelong commitment to join efforts and build a family. What the couples have in mind are just love and enjoyment for the moment. Long-term consequences: Even if the student couple are truly committed to “loving” each other, there are some negative social consequences they have to face. ? Pregnancy ? loss of love

    10. Faulty Logic? Faulty connection Homosexual parenting results in gender confusion; furthermore, it makes children more likely to experiment with homosexual behavior or become homosexuals in the future. Frankly speaking, I strongly disagree with the idea that the best household consists of a father and a mother. Good parenting is not influenced by sexual orientation.

    11. Re-ordering and modifying the statements Indeed, having homosexual parents allows the children to have plural choices in gender orientation, and have more freedom to be homosexuals if they want to. Homosexual parenting, however, does not lead to homosexual children, whereas unhappy heterosexual families have been a known cause for homosexuality. Actually, since homosexual marriage and adoption have been so difficult, those homosexual couples who become parents after careful consideration and screening by the social workers, I believe, must be responsible for their decision and become much better parents than some heterosexual parents who give birth to children accidentally and are thus unprepared for them emotionally and financially.

    12. Avoid Generalization As the minority in the society, homosexuals are not the abnormal group though. Compared with some heterosexual parents, who abandoned their children and committed child abuse, homosexuals are capable of playing the role as good parents as heterosexuals or even better. Therefore, the quality of parenting is not related to the gender of parents.

    13. Cause and Effect -- In most situations, more than one cause or effect is involved Specific wording, modification (100%) wholly. (99%) Practically all of (95%) almost entirely (90%) Nearly all (80%) By far the greater part of his fortune... (70%) The greater part of his fortune... (60%) More than half of his fortune... (55%) Rather more than half of his fortune... (45%) Nearly half of (40%) A large part of (30%) A considerable part of (25%) Part of (15%) A very small part of (10%) Not much of (5%) A very small part (1%) An inconsiderable part of (0%) None of his fortune..(source)

    14. Premise According to the religious point of view, all kinds of lives should be respected equally, no matter to human or any other animals; of course including the stray dogs. If we did any ill behavior, which hurt or killed a life, we would be bound to get retribution some day. All the religions hold this view? Who are “we”? Are the dog-killers to be blamed, or the dog-owners and the policy makers?

    15. Premise As long as seeing love and respect as our starting point, there will be no behavior of hurting lives, but replace it with the love, concern, protection, and the cherishing attitude towards them. As long as we have love and respect for the living, we will not hurt lives. Instead, we will cherish them, show them our love and even protect them.

    16. Premise –not hurt any kinds of lives? As long as we love the dogs we raise, we will will not think of throwing them out under whatever condition. Instead, we will love, cherish and protect them. Likewise, we should try to find a way to provide the stray dogs on the street should be commiserated.

    17. Vague expressions; confusing terms Every person has his own daily life habits and different likes and dislikes, which may cause the other person’s dissatisfactory and unhappiness, but in love, you won’t break up for these trifle reasons. So, similarly, after marriage you find that your husband has the habit of snoring, would you divorce with him? I think the answer is no. Therefore, the conclusion is that cohabitation as trial marriage is unnecessary.

    18. Vague expressions; confusing terms Understanding means understanding of one’s personality, interest, family background and habits. We can know a person, his/her family background and interest intimately through heart-to-heart conversation and doing things together. Even if this person means to hide something from us, s/he will still reveal traces of dishonestly if we are observant and patient enough. Only living habits need to be discovered through living together. However, after stable development of love relationship, if one loves a person truly so that one is willing to marry him/her, would s/he divorce the lover just because the latter snores or is messy? The answer, I think, is no. To cohabit as a trial marriage, therefore, is unnecessary.

    19. Information Macau: ??????????? ????,????????????,?????????????????,??????????????????,???????????????????????,??????????????,????????????,????? ???????????????????,???????(http://www.chinabiz.org.tw/maz/InvCina/199907-065/199907-058.html ) ??????,?????????,????,N.609,Jul. 26 - Aug. 1, 1999

    20. Suggestions: Sufficient Research, but try to avoid faulty inference from some statistics or singular cases. Take account of the possible premises and causes. Take account of the counter-arguments, give them credits when necessary and then refute them. Avoid confusion of terms.

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