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CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION
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CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION

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  1. CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 4 – 5

  2. MANIFEST DESTINY • Idea that god had bestowed the entire continent to the Americans • Caused massive expansion west to Pacific Ocean & Mexican Territory • Santa Fe Trail – Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM • Oregon Trail – Independence, MO to Portland, OR • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) - Utah

  3. Joseph Smith Brigham Young

  4. OREGON & TEXAS • Oregon territory divided on 49th parallel between Britain & U.S. Creates WA, OR, ID • Mexico gains independence from Spain. Offers land to American farmers • American farmers want to be part of U.S. Mexico refuses to sell TX • Stephen Austin attempts to settle things only to be imprisoned by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna • Battle of Alamo – 187 killed, few women & children survived • Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna. • Forms Republic of Texas “The Lone Star Republic”

  5. Stephen Austin The Alamo Sam Houston Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  6. WAR WITH MEXICO • President Polk supports TX & sends General Zachary Taylor to defend it • American blood spilt on American soil. • American forces capture Mexican cities • Colonel Stephen Kearny & John C. Fremont claim New Mexico & the Republic of California where they hoisted a flag that featured a grizzly bear • Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey, Mexico. Winfield Scott captures Veracruz & Mexico City James Polk Zachary Taylor John Slidell

  7. WAR WITH MEXICO • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Rio Grande is border for TX, NM & CA go to U.S. $15 million paid for south CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ, CO, & WY • Gadsden Purchase: current borders for lower 48 states • Wilmot Proviso: slavery should not exist in any territory acquired from Mexico. Favored by Northerners

  8. SLAVERY & WESTWARD EXPANSION James Marshall • Popular Sovereignty • California Gold Rush – skips territorial phase & push to be admitted as a state • Compromise of 1850: CA = free, South = Fugitive Slave Law, BOTH = popular sovereignty • Fugitive Slave Act: easier to capture runaways; assisting alleged fugitives = $1k fine, imprisonment for 6 months, or both

  9. SLAVERY & WESTWARD EXPANSION • Underground Railroad • Harriet Tubman – slave conductor • Harriett Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Stephen A. Douglas – offers each provision of Compromise of 1850 separately & they pass

  10. CRISIS OF KANSAS • Douglas wants to build a railroad but needs to get Nebraska Territory admitted to union. Willing to repeal Missouri Compromise • Kansas-Nebraska Act: two states – NE & KS; popular sovereignty rule in effect to decide slavery issue • Proslavery vs. Anti-slavery in KS – voting fraud • “Sack of Lawrence” • John Brown – abolitionist; Pottawatomie Massacre

  11. POLITICAL & SECTIONAL DIVISIONS • Charles Sumner’s vs. Senator Butler, SC – SEE POLITICAL CARTOON PG. 60 • Whig party divided on slavery issue • American Party: anti-Catholic, “Know-nothing” party, divided on slavery • Free-Soil Party: opposed expansion of slavery • Liberty Party: abolitionists who wanted slavery ended by passing laws • Republican Party: antislavery Democrats, discontented Northern Whigs, & Free-soilers.

  12. DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD • Dred Scott is a slave who sued for freedom as his owner died & he lived for 4 years in IL • Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney’s decision: • Scott was not a citizen, but property • Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional as it violated citizen’s rights under 5th amendment

  13. UNION DISSOLVES • John Brown attempts to arm slaves to end slavery by raiding Harper’s Ferry • Lincoln-Douglas debates – 6 debates all on issue of slavery

  14. UNION DISSOLVES • Freeport Doctrine: any territory could exclude slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting & enforcing them • Lincoln wins the presidential election of 1860 • Secession: Southern states leave the union beginning with SC. Followed by MI, FL, AL, FA, LA, & TX • Confederate States of America (Confederacy) is formed

  15. UNION ADVANTAGES • Strong naval tradition • Industrialization - factories • Railroads • Instant communication – telegraph • Immigrants providing labor • Population • Food production

  16. CONFEDERACY ADVANTAGES • Strong military leadership – first rate generals • Rivers for transportation • Profit from cotton • Motivated soldiers defending homeland

  17. Lincoln FORT SUMTER • Lincoln’s dilemma: reinforce it or retreat. • Jefferson’s dilemma: do nothing or attack the fort • Sumter is attacked on April 12, 1861 • VA secedes from Union after Sumter’s fall • Richmond becomes capital of Confederacy • May 1861: AS, TN, & NC secede • MD, KY, DE, MI remain in Union but many will fight for Confederacy Jefferson Davis

  18. FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN • Union’s Plan (Anaconda Plan): blockade of southern ports, control of Mississippi River, & capture Richmond • Bull Run (Manassas Junction): July 21, 1861. • Both sides were inexperienced • Total chaos for Union • Lincoln appoints George McClellan to lead the Army of the Potomac

  19. An 1861 cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda plan. Credit: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. (Digital File Number: g3701s cw0011000

  20. First Bull Run General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson - Confederacy

  21. WAR IN THE WEST • General Ulysses S. Grant: captures Fort Henry (TN River), Fort Donelson (Cumberland River), & Shiloh. Grant only accepts unconditional surrender • David Farragut: seizes New Orleans, Baton Rouge, & Natchez. • Ironclads: metal ships. Monitor (Union) vs. Merrimack (Confederacy) ends in a stalemate

  22. Fort Donelson

  23. IRONCLADS

  24. WAR IN THE EAST • Seven Days’ Battle – June 25 to July 1, 1862: Lee defends Richmond from McClellan • Second Battle of Bull Run – Aug. 29/30, 1862: Lee moves against Washington D.C. • Battle of Antietam – Sept. 17, 1862: bloodiest single day. Over 26k died. McClellan would be fired for not chasing Lee’s battered men General Robert E. Lee

  25. Seven Days’ Battle

  26. Battle of Antietam

  27. Sunken Road Photos taken by Matthew Brady

  28. EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION • Lincoln disliked slavery but did not believe govt. could abolish it where it already existed • Lincoln uses constitutional war powers to institute proclamation • Emancipation Proclamation: • Goes into effect January 1, 1863 • Only applied to areas BEHIND Confederate lines, outside Union control • Allows for free blacks to serve Union army (Massachusetts 54th)

  29. THE POLITICS OF WAR • Trent Affair: attempt by South to “test” Britain’s neutrality & to gain their assistance. Captain Charles Wilkes (Union) arrested James Mason & John Slidell (Confederate) who were aboard a British ship Trent. Britain moved 8K troops to Canada. Lincoln freed the men stating that Wilkes acted without orders. James Mason Capt. Charles Wilkes John Slidell

  30. POLITICAL OF WAR • Lincoln deals with dissent by: • suspending habeas corpus rights • Seizes telegraph offices • Davis would deal with dissent in the same manner • Conscription riots plagued both Union & Confederacy

  31. AFRICAN AMERICANS • North: Former slaves would serve Union army (Massachusetts 54th); still suffer discrimination • Fort Pillow, TN: Confederates massacred over 200 African American prisoners & whites who were with them • South: considered drafting them; they would engage in sabotage

  32. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS DURING THE WAR • South: plantation system weakened; shortages in manpower, food-growing causing food prices to rise, loss of slaves, Union blockade of ports • North: industries boomed, corruption in industry, work force of whites dwindled but they would be replaced by African Americans & women, wages did not keep up with cost of living

  33. TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR • May 1863: Lee defeats the North at Chancellorsville. General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson is shot by accident by Confederate soldiers, loses his left arm, & later dies of Pneumonia on May 10. Lee continues to press onward into Gettysburg, PA.

  34. TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR • Vicksburg • a year long siege • surrenders on July 4, 1863

  35. TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR • Gettysburg: 3 full days of fighting. Starts July 1, 1863. Fighting finally stops & on July 4 the dead are accounted for • Day 1: Confederates go into town looking for shoes run in John Buford’s cavalry. Confederates take the town • Day 2: Confederates attack Cemetery Ridge from Seminary Ridge going through orchard & wheat field. Huge loss of life. Union takes control of Little Round Top • Day 3: artillery barrages for most of morning. Lee advances during silence. Lee retreats

  36. Culp’s Hill – Day 2

  37. TURNING POINTS OF WAR • Total loss of life at Gettysburg: • North – 23k killed or wounded • South – 28k killed or wounded • Gettysburg Address: November 1863 • land dedicated to soldiers who died. Over 100 are still not identified • Lincoln’s 10-minute speech where he focuses on the U.S. as a WHOLE & defined what the U.S. IS

  38. THE WAR ENDS • Ulysses S. Grant appointed over Potomac Army • “Wilderness” Campaign • “March to the Sea” • Lincoln wins second term • Petersburg, VA – final battle • Appomattox Courthouse – Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865

  39. “March to the Sea” William Tecumseh Sherman

  40. APPOMATOX COURTHOUSE

  41. RESULTS OF WAR • Political: • Government exerts national authority • Secession never used again • Income tax • Currency • Conscription • State’s rights exerted in other forms • Economic: • National railroad • Federal Banks • North: profit, $ to invest, new technology • South: 40% of livestock gone, lack of farm machinery, railroads destroyed, uncultivated land

  42. RECONSTRUCTION • 1865 – 1877 – refers to rebuilding of the South & readmission of Confederate States • Lincoln’s 10% plan • Pardon for all Confederate soldiers except high-ranking ones as long as they sword allegiance to Union • Once 10% did this then state could reform government & gain representation in U.S. Congress

  43. RECONSTRUCTION • “Radical” Republicans opposed Lincoln’s plan. Believed that Reconstruction belonged to Congress. • Wade-Davis Bill – puts Reconstruction in hands of Congress. Lincoln uses “pocket” veto Charles Sumner Thaddeus Stevens