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CIVILIZATION SYSTEMS. ANCIENT EGYPT. Madeleine, Marjorie, Paige, Emily, Gabriella , Jessica. POLITICAL. A. (1) Who is in control? Originally Ancient Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. There were two kings or Pharaohs for each division

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civilization systems
CIVILIZATION SYSTEMS

ANCIENT EGYPT

Madeleine, Marjorie, Paige, Emily, Gabriella , Jessica

political
POLITICAL
  • A. (1) Who is in control?
    • Originally Ancient Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. There were two kings or Pharaohs for each division
    • It wasn’t until the reign of Narmer that Egypt was unified
  • The head of the legal system, the Pharaoh was responsible for creating laws, delivering justice, and maintaining law and order
  • They were under the Divine Right of Kings therefore Pharaoh’s were considered Holy
  • Ancient Egypt civilization was essentially a dictatorship with the Pharaoh having veto power but also a hereditary monarchy
political1
POLITICAL
  • (2) Why does it work?
    • The Pharaoh is considered a god, therefore with the common Egyptian trusted the divinity of their ruler
    • They placed trust in the sense that the Pharaoh was of higher supremacy and usually went with the decision of the Pharaoh and his oracles
  • B. (1) How did they get control?
    • Power was passed down through hereditary methods
    • The Pharaoh in power, usually would have a favoured wife, (had more than 1) and the position would go to the male heir
political2
POLITICAL
  • Significant Rulers
    • Akhenaten - changed Egypt and pushed his people towards a new religion--the belief in one god.
    • Amenhotep III - This pharaoh ruled during a peaceful time and beautified Egypt. 
    • Ahmose I - This pharaoh set the stage for the rise of the New Kingdom where Egypt reached the peak of its power.
    • Cleopatra VII - Read her incredible story and find out what she did to maintain her power as pharaoh. 
    • Hatshepsut - This lady was full of ambition and dressed like a pharaoh to preserve her dominance. 
    • Khufu - Read about his greatest accomplishment--the construction of the largest pyramid.
    • King Tut (Tutankhamun) - Come explore the virtual tomb of the boy pharaoh and read about his life.
    • Menes - King Menes is shrouded in mystery that may be lost in the folds of history forever. He is considered by many scholars to be the first pharaoh to rule Egypt and the first pharaoh of the Dynasty I period.
    • Ramses II - Come read about the pharaoh Ramses II as he is perhaps one of Egypt's most powerful rulers.
    • Snefru- Read about the pharaoh that was responsible for so many pyramids
political3
POLITICAL
  • C. (1) How do they keep control?
    • Pharaohs kept control through their divine right.
    • They displayed their insignia: the crook or flail that conveyed their divinity
    • Was untouchable to ordinary mortals
    • Had servants and many helpers
    • Pharaohs were in control until death
  • Egyptian Military
    • Army and navy
political4
POLITICAL
  • Had many threats to the kingdom
  • The military built fortresses and was required not only for defence but pre-emptive strikes
  • Men were initially conscripted
  • But because there were so many rewards, volunteers soon flocked
  • Armies consisted of 20,000 soldiers in 4 divisions named after the gods
  • The Pharaoh of his son would be main commander and each division held a commander in chief.
social
SOCIAL
  • 1.What is the class structure?
    • 1. pharaoh 2. Officials, priests, scribes 3.soldiers 4.merchants 5. Artisans 6.farmers 7. Slaves/servants
  • 2.Who is in the upper class?
    • The pharaoh and the government officials
  • 3.What family structure do they have?
    • Regarded children as a blessing. Young boys would learn the trade of the father, and girls would rain at home with the mother, and learn how to run a household. Elderly were protected, and the children often were the ones taking care of them.
social1
SOCIAL
  • 4. What is the role of women/wife?
    • Although they had legal equality they still had their own job to do. They were to produce children, and take care of the rearing, also they would run the home.
  • 5. Role of men/husband?
    • They are the providers of the family unit. They are expected to bring in enough money to support the family. As well as arrange marriages and deals between other families.
  • 6.What education system do they have that maintains this class structure?
    • Sons would be taught by the fathers. Generally all sons would take over the trade his father had
    • Because that was what they were taught.
social2
SOCIAL
  • 7. Who is educated?
    • Only the sons of rich or more upper class citizens such as the pharaoh, scribes, and officials. They had the time to be educated because their fathers generally had more wealth, and stability to sacrifice the time to send them to school. Farmers children would probably never go because they needed to help on the farm.
  • 8. What is most emphasized in the educational process?
    • In Egyptian society being truthful and moral was highly valued, so from a very young age this was instilled in them.
culture
CULTURE
  • What is most important in the civilization or what do they “value”?
    • Religion – their gods and goddesses
    • Art and architecture – includes some of the most famous structures, built to reinforce the power of the pharaoh
  • Who is the keeper of the culture?
    • The pharaoh
  • What are the cultural activities of the civilization?
    • Great value was placed on hygiene and appearance – most bathing in the Nile River. Aromatic perfumes covered odours. Clothing was made from linen; both men and women wore wigs, jewellery and cosmetics.
    • Music and dance and games were popular for entertainment- instruments such as flutes and harps; senet, a board game based on chance, juggling and wrestling were popular with children
  • How do they reflect the values of the civilization?
    • Great value was placed on hygiene and appearance.
culture1
CULTURE
  • What do they produce that maintains (keeps it going) their culture?
    • Produced hieroglyphs – formal script used on monuments and tombs or art
    • Architecture – great pyramids of Giza, temples at Thebes
  • Describe the new technology or advancements
    • Basic math operations – calculate fractions and surface area
    • Built ships known as Abydos boats
    • Created art – faience (glassy material)
culture2
CULTURE
  • What type of religion or explanation of the purpose of life do they have?
    • The ancient Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, they also considered the pharaoh (king) to be a god. Their gods were sometimes represented as animals.
    • Worshiped their gods in pantheons and temples
    • Kept elaborate burial customs to certify immortality after death – customs such as mummification and removing internal organs.
  • Which Gods or Gods do they worship?
    • Pharaoh and many different gods and goddesses
economic
ECONOMIC
  • What is their major economic activity?
    • They used a type of money-barter system.
  • How do they maintain their civilization?
    • with standard sacks of grain and the Deben, a weight of roughly 91 grams (3 oz) of copper or silver, forming a common denominator.
  • Who does the labour?
    • Low-class men, women and children
  • How do they profit?
    • Workers were paid in grain
  • Who owns the means of production?
    • High-class men and Women
  • How do they profit?
    • Earning a lot of Deben from selling all kinds of products.
education
EDUCATION
  • How are the values of the civilization transmitted?
    • Some kids who came from rich families went to. The ones who did not attend school learned at home from their parents. Schools were only attended to by boys.
  • Is this process formal or informal?
    • This is formal to the way they live in there are. If it were now it would be informal as everyone should have an education.
education1
EDUCATION
  • Who are the philosophers or teachers of the values?
    • Men were taught by other men. The boys that attend school were taught by teachers who were men and well educated in government. Girls were taught by their mothers on specifics depending on their social standings.
  • What values are they teaching?
    • The values parents are teaching are based on their social standings. For example: women were taught the basics of housekeeping, cooking, and making clothes. Men were taught to be leaders in school and in hope to one day enter the royal service.
geography
GEOGRAPHY
  • The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the 'black land' and the 'red land'.
  • The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black silt was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded.
geography1
GEOGRAPHY
  • The 'red land' was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighbouring countries and invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones.
geography2
GEOGRAPHY
  • In Ancient Egypt, life depended on the Nile River.
    • Each year, near the beginning of summer, heavy rains felt further South in Africa and caused the Nile to overflow its banks in Egypt.
  • The flood was very good for the soil, allowing the Egyptians to plant their crops of grains, vegetables, and fruits.
    • Without the rainy weather cycles, the Egyptians might not have been able to eat. It's no doubt that understanding the weather was important to them.
  • Because of that many cultural aspects and rituals were based upon the hope that the gods would bring a proper Nile flood.
geography3
GEOGRAPHY
  • The Nile connected the upper & lower kingdoms of Egypt, and also led to Abyssinia.
    • Foreigners (Greeks, Phoenicians) traded ideas and merchandise with Egypt by way of ships on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Most of Egypt's land was non-fertile desert, home to semi-nomadic people
  • Most Egyptian people were peasants who worked along the fertile Nile flood basin.
    • They had no voice in government, they accepted this fact because it was backed by their religion. This is why Egypt was kept so powerful and centralized.