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End to World War I. Peace Without Victory and Wilson’s 14 Points of Light. America Gives the Allies Edge. American troops were called “doughboys” Unsure origin—possibly because they were “soft” or dough-headed, meaning stupid, or had a love of dumplings or doughnuts

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end to world war i

End to World War I

Peace Without Victory and Wilson’s 14 Points of Light

america gives the allies edge
America Gives the Allies Edge
  • American troops were called “doughboys”
    • Unsure origin—possibly because they were “soft” or dough-headed, meaning stupid, or had a love of dumplings or doughnuts
  • Helped reverse the German advance and boosted Allied morale
  • U.S. ships assisted in protecting convoys (merchant ships sail together to protect warships)
peace without victory
Peace Without Victory
  • “[There] must be peace without victory…Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor’s terms imposed upon the vanquished…”—Wilson, 1917
  • He didn’t want the Germans to resent the Allies for fear it might cause bitterness and later conflict
wilson s fourteen points
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • Peace
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Removal of economic barriers
  • Guarantee that national armaments will be reduced
  • Adjustment to colonial claims
  • Evacuate and restore Russian territories seized during war—Russia should be welcomed into society of free nations
  • Restore sovereignty to Belgium
continued
Continued
  • Free all French territory
  • Adjust Italian boundaries
  • Allow citizens of Austria-Hungary to choose their government
  • Redraw boundaries of Balkan states (Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro) based on nationalities and historical allegiances
  • Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire should have a secure sovereignty
  • Restore and protect Poland as a sovereign state with access to the sea
  • Establish an association of nations to provide collective security and to ensure peace “League of Nations”
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Other Allies wanted peace and victory
  • Wanted to punish Germany
  • Did not include free trade, freedom of seas, liberation of colonial empires among other things
  • They did establish a League of Nations
  • “War Guilt Clause”
    • Germany must accept full moral responsibility for war
    • Must pay retribution
  • Some boundaries created by dismantling the Ottoman Empire did not take into account natural links or cultural similarities
treaty in u s
Treaty in U.S.
  • The treaty gets revised a few times and Wilson refuses to compromise on the issue of the League of Nations
  • Some in the Senate have their reservations about the treaty because they think it could lead the U.S. into a war without the consent of Congress
  • The treaty was defeated numerous times because there was disagreement over how involved the U.S. should be in foreign affairs
wilson s league of nations
Wilson’s League of Nations
  • Wilson believed the treaty had its flaws but that the U.S. should join the League of Nations
  • He believed granting both strong and weak countries a voice in a world organization was necessary for peace
  • Others opposed it because they believed it would bind the U.S. to decisions made by other countries and was in opposition to democracy
  • U.S. never joins and the league never really has any strength
after the war
After the War…
  • After the war, the economy slowed and inflation rose. The recession caused a competitive job market as soldiers came home and women and minorities fought to keep their jobs
  • Red Scare- fear of the spread of communism because of the revolutions occurring in other parts of the world (Soviet Union)
  • Communism called for the end of capitalism and the empowerment of the working class
return to isolationism
Return to Isolationism
  • The U.S. had done its part in making the world “safe for democracy” and had become a large creditor for foreign nations (GB and Fr had to borrow money from the U.S. bankers in order to pay for goods they needed) and now many wanted to go back to the way things were before the war
  • Wanted a return to “normalcy”