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WORLD WAR I Chapter 30: The War to End War. Was it in the best interests of the United States to stay neutral or declare war in 1917?. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I: M A N I A. M ilitarism - policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war

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world war i chapter 30 the war to end war

WORLD WAR IChapter 30: The War to End War

Was it in the best interests of the United States to stay neutral or declare war in 1917?

causes of world war i m a n i a
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I: MANIA
  • Militarism - policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war
  • Alliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
  • Nationalism- pride in or devotion to one’s country
  • Imperialism - when one country takes over another country economically and politically
  • Assassination - murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
which side should the u s take
Which Side Should the U.S. Take?
  • Immigrants (foreign born) in the U.S.
    • Germany 2.5 million
    • Austria-Hungary 1.6 million
    • Ireland 1.2 million
    • Great Britain 1.2 million
    • Russia 1.7 million
    • Italy 1.3 million foreign
  • The United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name.
    • Woodrow Wilson’s Statement on
    • Neutrality (1914)
zimmerman telegram
Zimmerman Telegram
  • Proposed alliance between Germany and Mexico
the world must be made safe for democracy woodrow wilson 4 2 1917
“…The world must be made safe for democracy…” – Woodrow Wilson (4/2/1917)
  • “Neutrality is no longer feasible.”
  • “The right is more precious than peace.”
  • 82 – 6/Senate
  • 373 – 50/House
  • The United States joins the Allies
  • Lafayette, we are here!
a war of firsts for the united states
A war of firsts for the United States
  • First time the U.S. government committed to sending large numbers of troops across the sea
    • Most Americans thought we’d only send supplies or food
  • Selective Service
    • National draft (all men ages 21-30 had to register)
  • American Expeditionary Force under Pershing
    • “doughboys” (the first infantry to reach Europe)
    • Separate unit not joined to the Allies because Pershing disagreed with the defensive, trench warfare
    • Give the U.S. a greater voice in the after war peace
the russian revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution of 1917
  • Thanks to Russian involvement, the Germans had to fight a two front war
  • In 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed
    • Communist Russia (now the U.S.S.R.) was out of the war
    • Central Powers gained territory given up by the Russians
    • No more war on the Eastern Front
a war of firsts for the united states1
A war of firsts for the United States
  • The First African-American Officer Training Camp
    • Strictly segregated military
    • Black soldiers could not become officers at first
    • Separate camp to train officers was eventually established
  • 369th Regiment
    • All black regiment known as the “Hell Fighters”
peace groups
Peace Groups
  • Pacifists- people who oppose all war for political, moral, or religious reasons
  • Conscientious Objectors- people who opposed war for religious or moral reasons and therefore refused to serve in the armed forces (often risking going to prison)
  • Women’s Peace Party (led by Jane Addams)
    • Feared that U.S.’s entry into war would diminish support for their reform
    • How is America’s democracy looking these days?
government and the war
Government and the War
  • Committee on Public Information (CPI)
    • George Creel led this government created committee in attempt to sell the war to the public.
    • Films, Books, and Four Minute Men (speakers around the country)
  • Patriotic Fervor
    • Propaganda= information or rumors spread by a group or the government to promote causes or ideas to damage an opposing cause or idea
    • Parades , flag waving, schools sending war materials
    • Sometimes patriotic fervor started anti-German hysteria
transforming the economy for the war effort
Transforming the Economy for the War Effort
  • Raising money for the war effort came through taxes and liberty bonds
  • Liberty Bonds- certificate issued by the government that promises to pay back the money with interest on a specific date
  • Taxes funded ¼ of the cost
    • War Revenue Act
      • increased income taxes during WWI
industry food and fuel for war
Industry, Food, and Fuel for War
  • War Industries Board- headed by Bernard Baruch coordinated the work of government agencies, and industry groups
    • To make sure supplies and equipment were produced and delivered to the military
    • National War Labor Board- government worked to ensure the cooperation of unions
  • Food and Fuel
    • Food Administration- oversaw the production and distribution of food and fuel
    • Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays
    • Gasless Sundays, and Heatless Mondays
    • Victory Gardens (one in front of the White House)
democracy on the home front
Democracy on the Home front
  • African Americans
    • Most supported the war effort and the NAACP encouraged people to serve in the military
    • WEB Du Bois wrote, “Let us, while this war lasts, forget our special grievances and close our ranks shoulder to shoulder with our own white fellow citizens and the allied nations that are fighting for democracy.”
  • Great Migration
    • Mass movement of African Americans to the North.
    • Chicago, New York City, Cleveland saw an explosion of black residents
    • Race Riots broke out in 1919
      • A St. Louis factory owner brought in black workers to break up a strike and a riot broke out causing 30 African-Americans to die and 9 whites
immigrants fear and the law
Immigrants, Fear and the Law
  • Immigrants needed to appear “americanized”
    • Most immigrants supported the war
    • American Protective League-selfappointed patriot group that targeted immigrants for being disloyal
    • German Americans were often attacked and targeted
  • Espionage Act (1917)- “spying”- made it a crime to try and interfere with the military draft and set penalties for spying, sabotage, and “obstruction of the war effort.”
  • Sedition Act (1918)- made it a crime to say anything that was disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government
speaking out against the war
Speaking Out Against the War
  • Wobblies- members of the Industrial Workers of the World spoke out against the war.
    • 165 arrested, 1 hanged, viewed as disloyal
  • Schenck v. United States
    • Charles Schenck, a socialist, was charged with espionage for distributing leaflets to recent draftees, urging them to resist the military draft.
    • First Amendment? Freedom of Speech?
    • Unanimous decision- Schenck’s publications created a clear and present danger to a nation engaged in war.
t h e end to the war to end all war
The End to the "War to End All War"
  • From “Lafayette, we are here!-1917…
  • To on the Eleventh day, of the Eleventh month at the Eleventh hour = armistice-1918
wilson s vision for world peace presented at the paris peace conference at versailles
Wilson’s Vision for World Peace Presented at the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles
  • Fourteen Points- Wilson’s blueprint for peace
  • Do you remember what caused World War I in the first place? Woodrow Wilson remembered.
    • End to Secret Alliances
    • Freedom of Seas
    • European reduction of Armaments (weapons)
    • Right to Self Determination
    • Creation of the League of Nations –an international peace keeping organization in which countries would protect territorial integrity
paris peace conference
Paris Peace Conference
  • The European victors were not really buying what Woody was selling…
  • War Guilt Clause held Germany responsible for WWI and required them to pay reparations to the Allied nations (33 billion dollars)
    • Wilson did not agree with this Clause…
  • Parts of Germany were given to France, Poland, Denmark, and Belgium
  • Italy gained Austrian Territory.
the treaty of versailles was signed june 18 th 1919 by the big four
The TREATY OF VERSAILLES was signed June 18th, 1919 by the BIG FOUR

Big Four-: W. Wilson (US), D. Lloyd George (GB), G. Clemenceau (France) and V. Orlando (Italy)

wilson brings the treaty home to ratify
Wilson brings the Treaty home to ratify…

Wilson (a Democrat) needed 2/3 vote to ratify the treaty but the Republicans were hesitant

Partisanship (rivalry between the parties) defeats the treaty

Many Senators felt the treaty would drag us into world affairs (the League of Nations) and war

Some Democrats turned on Wilson and voted the treaty down.

The treaty is rejected by 7 votes

Wilson takes his case to the public in hopes of saving his treaty in the election of 1920

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By 1921 the League of Nations was running without the U.S. as a member (whose president had created it)

Could WWII have been avoided if the US joined the League of Nations?