Cells – What are they? • Specific • Separate mass surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane • The basic structural unit of life • All organisms are composed of one or more cells
Cells – What are they? • How cells differ from each other; • Size • Shape • Organization
The Discovery of the Cell • The first microscope magnified an object 270 times. • Today, they can magnify 200,000 times. • Robert Hooke was the first to view the world of cells in 1660.
Cell Developments • 1665 – Robert Hooke • English scientists • Took thin sliced of cork bark • Noticed they had similar compartments • He called them cells • Estimated there were 1 billion cells per cubic inch
Cell Developments • 1838 – Matthais Schledien • Discovered that plants have cells • 1839 – Theodor Schwann • Discovered that animals have cells • 1858 – Rodolf Virchow • Discovered that all cells come from living things.
The Cell Theory • 1. All organisms are composed of cells. • 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. • 3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
Inter Cellular Terminology • Cytoplasm: • Suspended fluid inside the cell • Aids in transport of substances within the cell
Inter Cellular Terminology • Organelles • Special structures in the cytoplasm • Each performs a special task to help keep the cell alive
Inter Cellular Terminology • Chromosomes • Molecules of DNA wrapped around proteins • Found in the Nucleus • Controls cell functions and the what traits are passed on
Inter Cellular Terminology • Centriole • Small, Organelle lying near the nucleus in the cytoplasm • Aids in cell division • Only in animal cells
Inter Cellular Terminology • Plants and Animals • Smooth ER • Rough ER • Endoplasmic Reticulum • A system of cannels • Transports substances into the cell • Called the CHEMICAL WORK BENCH
Inter Cellular Terminology • Plants and Animals • Golgi Apparatus • Found in the cytoplasm • Packages proteins for • Storage • Secretion
Inter Cellular Terminology • Only in Animal Cells • Lysosome • Breaks down food and foreign material. • Removes waste materials from the cell
Inter Cellular Terminology • Messenger RNA • Synthesized in the Nucleus • Passes through the ribosome • Provides a template for enzyme or protein synthesis
Inter Cellular Terminology • Transfer RNA • Serves as an adaptor molecule in the syntheses of protein
Inter Cellular Terminology • Plants and Animals • Mitochondria • Spherical or elongated • Releases energy to produce body heat. • Contains the electron transmitter • POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL • Burn food to obtain energy
Inter Cellular Terminology • Nuclear Membrane • Separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm • Controls • What leaves the cell • What enters the cell
Inter Cellular Terminology • Plants and Animals • Nucleolus • Produces ribonucleic acids (RNA) • Assembles ribosome's
Inter Cellular Terminology • Nucleus • Organelle containing the hereditary information • Plants and Animals
Inter Cellular Terminology • Ribosomes • Granules composed of protein and RNA • Synthesis protein
Inter Cellular Terminology • Vacuole • Small space within a cell • Filled with water • Stores food, water and wastes • Plants and Animals
Intra-cellular terminology • Plasma Membrane • Encloses the cell • Regulates what enters and exits the cell
Structures outside of the Cell • Hemoglobin • Red • Protein pigment that transports O and CO2 • Regulates pH
Structures outside of the Cell • Erythrocyte • Red Blood Cells • Leukocytes • White blood cells
Structures outside of the Cell • Microfilaments • Thin, thread like fibers • Aids in cell movement • Contracts like muscles
Structures outside of the Cell • Platelet • Small colorless corpuscle • Aids in blood coagulation
Levels of Cellular Organization • Cells • The basic unit of all living things • Tissues: • Groups of cells working together • Organs: • Groups of tissues working together • Organ Systems: • Groups of organs working together • Organisms: • Groups of organ systems working together
Processes of the Cell • Absorption: • Taking in water and nutrients • Chlorophyll: • The green pigment of plants • Aids in photosynthesis
Processes of the Cell • Chloroplast: • The site that photosynthesis takes place • Chlorophyll: • The green pigment of plants • Aids in photosynthesis
Processes of the Cell • Differentiation: • Process of changing unspecialized into specialized cells • Photosynthesis: • Making sugars in green plants from water, carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight.
Processes of the Cell • Respiration: • Using stored foods to obtain energy • Transpiration: • The evaporation of water from the leaves of the plant
Processes of Photosynthesis • The process that plants us to produce food for themselves • Plants are the factories of the world • An estimated 150 billion tons of sugar are produced by plants each year
Processes of Photosynthesis • How it works • Carbon Dioxide enters the leaf from the surrounding air • Water moves from the soil into the root, stems, and leaves • The H20 and the CO2 are synthesized in the chlorophyll with the energy from sunlight
Processes of Photosynthesis • The end result is the formulation of sugar which is transported around the plant to be used • After the plant uses the Hydrogen, and Carbon, the Oxygen is a bi-product of the photosynthesis and is released
Processes of Respiration • Here’s how it works; • Sugar is broken down to produce energy for essential plant functions. • Respiration consumes oxygen and glucose • Respiration gives of Carbon Dioxide and water
Plants vs. Animals • Plant Cells • Cell Wall • Made of cellulose • Gives support and shape • They have chloroplasts • Green chlorophyll pigment • Site of Photosynthesis
Plants vs. Animals • Plant Cells • No microtubules • No cenrioles • Usually a single large vacuole • Liposome's are absent.
Plants vs. Animals • Animal Cells • Microtubules give them shape • No cell wall, plastids, chloroplasts • Vacuoles are small