Pseudopod • For movement and manipulation • Made of an extension of the cell membrane • Looks like a bulge or tentacle or extension of the cell membrane. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsYpngBG394&feature=player_embedded
Cilia • For movement, either moving a cell through something, or something past a cell. • Made of groups of proteins working like tiny oars. • Looks like tiny hairs growing out of the cell. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uvs5cOJYw7U&feature=player_embedded
Flagellum • For movement • A long “tail” that spins like a propeller to push a cell forward. • Looks like a long whip or tail extending from the cell. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jl0TzaWUQWk&feature=player_embedded
Cell Wall • For protection, structure and to prevent materials from entering or leaving the cell. • Made of tough inflexible plates made of a kind of sugar, with some pores (a small hole) to allow materials in and out. • Can make a cell look boxy or rigid. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZvx14FGpZE&feature=player_embedded
Cell Membrane • For protection, and to regulate what enters and leaves the cell. The cellular “skin.” • Is made of a flexible sheet of fats and phosphorous. • Looks like a thin translucent sheet with large molecules stuck through and on it. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GW0lqf4Fqpg&feature=player_embedded
Cell Surface Transport Protein • A large molecule that helps substances move in and out through the cellular membrane. • Found on the cell surface.
Cytoplasm or Cytosol • A thick fluid made mostly of water. • Acts as the transport medium for nutrients and cellular machinery. • Like the “blood” of a cell.
Ribosome • A large protein factory made of 4 smaller molecules of RNA. • It converts information in RNA into chains of amino acids known as proteins. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_n0Ij3K_Ho&feature=player_embedded
Thylakoid Membrane • For photosynthesis • A second membrane inside a cellwhere several enzymes use energy from light to create cellular fuel. • Look like bright green discs.
Chromosome • Stores genetic information needed to build proteins. • Is made of connected segments of DNA • Looks like a loop of DNA, sometimes clumped together in a bundle.
Endocytosis • A process where the cell membrane surrounds something in order to move it inside the cell. • The membrane surrounds the object, and pinches shut to create a pocket. • The pocket opens on the inside of the cell membrane, releasing the object. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=qpw2p1x9Cic
Exocytosis • A process where the cell membrane surrounds something in order to move it outside the cell. • The membrane surrounds the object, and pinches shut to create a pocket. • The pocket opens on the outside of the cell membrane, releasing the object. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=qpw2p1x9Cic
Passive transport • When materials are allowed to move in or out of a cell without using energy.
Active Transport • When a cell uses energy to move substances into, out of, or around inside itself.
Photosynthesis • A process that uses light energy to actively transport substances across the Thylakoid Membrane. As these substances are passively transported back, they provide energy to create cellular fuel.