180 likes | 193 Views
Application. Ship steering system is mechanism that transmits power from the steering engine to the rudder. Hydraulic system is made of Steering gear rudder, stern planes, and tiller. Steering gear.
E N D
Ship steering system is mechanism that transmits power from the steering engine to the rudder. Hydraulic system is made of Steering gear rudder, stern planes, and tiller Steering gear
Hydraulic system operate onPascal law, that states that – “Pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions” and using the (Shapelessness, Incompressibility, Transmission of force) Properties of liquid Principle of operations
Reservoir - Storage Tank Pressure source - Hydraulic pump (A-end) Pressure user - (B-end) Hydraulic motor - rotary motion Hydraulic cylinder - linear motion Piping systems valves, filters, heat exchangers Accumulator - stores pressurized oil Hydraulic fluid (normally oil)
Different method is use to connect the ram to the tiller, however the same principle apply. An electro hydraulic steering system has system that has the following components that work in a similar way and principle. Electro-hydraulic Steering Gear Ram unit Tiller Cylinder Hand pump Follow-up Shaft Electro-hydraulic Steering Gear Power unit Electric motor Waterbury pump (A end) Transfer valves Remote steering unit Trick wheel Method of operations
A simple The steering system of the ship has an arrangement where the pumps are connected by piping to the cylinder, two pipes are connected to by multiported valves and other pipe s from other pumps are connected for bypassing and the ram is also connected to the tiller. Description and specification of components
Normal control from ship's bridge Utilizes remote electrical signal to control tilt-box position of hydraulic pump Alternate control from after steering "Trick wheel” manually operated to control tilt-box angle Emergency control Hand pump - Manually pressurizes hydraulic fluid to take local control of rudder The steering gear use oil as fluid and advantage non-corrosive and superb lubrication give steering gear good performance. Moreso it is convenient, flexible, variable speed control, safety and reliability method of power transmission over long distances, however backdrop lies leaks in high pressure systems that pose a safety hazard and adequate oil filtration must be maintained Method of control
Control of ship movement started with use of celestial observation - earlier ship fearer stared with us of almanac, map, and sextant, to invention of electrically driven gyroscope and magnetic compass until 1911 when gyrocompass- autopilot system which uses a control feedback was invented. Ships autopilot systemBackground
The auto plot system work on control three term control law –proportional-integral-derivative (PID). Simple autopilot system use a single input single output control system where the heading of the ship is measured by gyrocompass. With introduction of control feedback system the signal is fed back to the computer PID (auto- pilot), which follow commands of the software. Principle of operations
Feedback system in auto plot system maintain the following: Position data Rate of data Accumulation of error data Autopilot Pilot input Ruder servo Compass Heading angle
The autopilot system is complex system divided into following components The input –Connected from different sensor to the controller Gyrocompass GPS Wind sensor Human input Outputs- To move vessel around to desired position Main propulsion Tunnel thrusters Azimuth Controller- It is recommended for efficient control system that autopilot system to have Good output feedback Good wave notch filtering And good integral action for compensation of wave drifts.
– Here the input come from the pilot as a step command, the rudder is then rotated in the direction of the desired course. The amount of heading change is determined by the amplitude of the step command and heading and position of the pilot are determined by the judgement of the helmsman. Input comman State Desired response Controller response Vessel response Controller response Methods of control Course changing
Here the control of the heading and the position is done by the autopilot. It takes position information and calculates the heading and correction in real-time to make the vessel follow the prêdermined course. Input command state Desired response Controller response Vessel response Controller response Vessel position dataresponse TRACKEEPING:
A good auto pilot can improve vessel profit margin by reducing number of ship personnel and fuel consumption. the drawback remain with leak associated the hydraulic system Conclusion