Where will we live when we have completely exploited Earth’s resources
Terraforming Mars • Making Mars capable of sustaining life. • What do you need to sustain life on Mars Oxygen Water Warmer Climate Avoid high levels of Solar Radiation.
Step #1 – Global Warming • Mars is cold • Mars’ thin atmosphere doesn’t keep heat in • Increase temperatures by Greenhouse Effect on Mars • Global Warming = traps heat from the Sun • How? CFCs?
Step #2 - Water • Using greenhouse effect and trapping in heat through global warming on Mars • Mars has polar ice caps • Ice caps melt • Liquid water begins to flow
Step #3 - Oxygen • Once water and temperatures are sustained you can begin oxygen creation • Plant trees that thrive in CO2 and can produce O2 • Headlines: Increasing exposure to carbon dioxide appears to boost crop yields Output increased by about 10 percent for barley, beets and wheat" when the plants were subjected to higher levels of carbon dioxide
Step #4 – Too much Solar Radiation • Must shield ourselves from cosmic rays • Place habitation modules in Lava tubes or under igloo structures from sintered regolith bricks (Ceramics)
Problems about Terraforming Mars • How are we going to land heavy crewed spaceships w/ thrusters only • Thin atmosphere – no aerodynamics…aka no effects for braking or landing
Problems about Terraforming Mars • No economic return • How are we going to make money on Mars?
Stars Chapter 2 Section 1
Color of Stars Which is Hotter, Rigel or Betelgeuse?
Composition of Stars • Made up of different elements in form of gases • Inner layers dense and hot • Outer layers cool gases • Elements in star’s atmosphere absorb some of the light from star • Different elements absorb different wavelengths of light • Astronomers can tell what elements a star is made of from light they observe from the star.
Colors of Light • Spectrum - Rainbow of colors • Millions of colors • Spectrograph breaks a star’s light into a spectrum • Spectrum tells information about composition and temperature of star
Making an ID • Many stores/restaurants use neon signs to attract customers • Gas in a neon sign glows when an electric current flows through the gas • Spectrograph reads this as emission lines
Emission Lines • Lines that are made when certain wavelengths of light or colors are given off by hot gases. • When an element emits light, only some colors of the spectrum show up, some are missing • Each element has unique set of emission lines • Emission lines = fingerprints of elements
Classifying Stars • Stars are classified by how hot they are • Different temperature = different colors
Types of Stars • Main-sequence stars • Giants • Supergiants • White dwarf stars
Mapping the Stars Chapter 1 Section 3
Patterns in the Sky • Ancient cultures connected stars in patterns • Patterns called Constellations • Sections of sky that contain recognizable star patterns • They helped people navigate and keep track of time.
Patterns in the sky cont… • Different civilizations had different names for same constellation • Constellation Orion Greeks saw hunter Japanese saw a drum
Organization • Constellations help organize the sky • Each constellation is a region of the sky • Each constellation shares a border w/ other constellations
Seasonal Changes • Constellations change from season to season • Different constellations are visible in the southern hemisphere • Sky maps are used to tell which constellations will appear during which season.
Finding Stars in Night Sky • Ever try pointing to an object and not sure if the person was really looking at what you were? • Astronomers use an instrument called an Astrolabe • Uses 3 points of reference • Zenith, Altitude, and Horizon
Cassiopeia • In the northern sky • Represents the queen Cassiopeia, who boasted about her unrivaled beauty. • Shaped like a “W”
In the fall Cassiopeia is in the shape of a W, and in the Spring she is in the shape of a M.
Orion • In the Northern sky • Resembles a hunter • Orion is standing next to the river Eridanus with his two hunting dogs, fighting Taurusthe bull.
If Betelgeuse were our sun, it would be so large that its diameter would be somewhere between Mars and Jupiter!
Scorpius • In the Northern sky • Resembles a scorpion's tail, and a vague body. • This scorpion which was sent by the goddess Hera to kill the hunter Orion
Cygnus • In the Northern sky • Resembles a wide winged, long necked bird, in graceful flight • Represents several different legendary swans. • Zeus disguised himself as a swan to seduce Leda, who gave birth to the Gemini, Helen of Troy, and Clytemnestra
Ursa Major • In the Northern sky • Ursa Major = Great Bear • Resembles a Bear… • The Big Dipper makes up the bear’s tail
Gemini • Its name is Latin for "twins," and it is associated with the twins Castor and Pollux in Greek mythology • Gemini is dominated by Castor and Pollux , two bright stars that appear relatively close together