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Mineral Resources

Mineral Resources

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Mineral Resources

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  1. Mineral Resources Mr. Clark BHS

  2. Mineral Resources • Types of mineral resources • Finding and extracting mineral resources

  3. Mineral Resources • Metallic • Non-metallic • Energy resources • Ores

  4. Categories of Mineral Resources • Identified Resources • Undiscovered Resources • Reserves • Other

  5. Locating Mineral Resources • Satellite and air imagery • Radiation detectors • Magnetometers • Gravity differences • Seismic surveys • Chemical analyses

  6. Extracting Mineral Resources: Surface Mining • Open-pit mining • Dredging • Area strip mining • Contour strip mining

  7. Extracting Mineral Resources: Underground Mining • Underground mining or subsurface mining • Room-and-pillar mining • Longwall mining

  8. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was established 1977 • Mine lands must be restored to pre-mining conditions • Taxes on mining companies to restore pre-1977 sites • Limited success

  9. Environmental Effects of Mining Mineral Resources • Disruption of land surface • Subsidence • Erosion of solid mining waste • Acid mine drainage (AMD) • Air pollution • Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste

  10. Environmental Effects of Mining Mineral Resources Fig. 16-14 p. 344

  11. Environmental Impacts of Mining Mineral Resources Surface mining Subsurface mining • Overburden • Room and pillar • Spoil • Longwall • Open-pit • Dredging Refer to Figs. 15-4 and 15-5, p. 341 and 342 • Strip mining

  12. Processing Mineral Resources • Ore mineral • Gangue • Tailings • Smelting

  13. Smelting Separation of ore from gangue Melting metal Conversion to product Metal ore Recycling Discarding of product Surface mining Scattered in environment

  14. Supplies of Mineral Resources • Economic depletion • Depletion time • Foreign sources • Environmental concerns • Economics • New technologies • Mining the ocean • Finding substitutes

  15. Open Pit Mine

  16. Dredging

  17. Area Strip Mining

  18. Contour Strip Mining

  19. Ventilation shaft Main shaft Lift cage Shaft Coal seams Pumps Underground Coal Mine

  20. Room-and-pillar

  21. Longwall Mining of Coal

  22. Transition from Peat to Lignite to Bituminous to Anthracite

  23. U. S. Coal Deposits Yellow = Anthracite Blue = Sub Bituminous Orange = Bituminous Green = Low Volatile Bituminous Purple = Lignite

  24. Major Coal fields in USA

  25. Canadian Coal Deposits

  26. Strip Mining for Coal

  27. Open Pit and Spoil Bank

  28. Strip Mine and Reclaimed Land

  29. Coal Drag Line

  30. World’s Largest Open Pit Copper Mine- Bingham Mine, Utah

  31. Open Pit Gold Mine - Nevada

  32. Bingham Canyon Mine and Tailings, Utah

  33. Bingham Canyon Open Pit Copper Mine Shovel and Truck Trucks at Crusher

  34. Shovel and Truck

  35. Ore Being Delivered to Crusher for Transport to Smelter 5 Miles Away

  36. Tailings Piles – Bingham Mine

  37. Mine Tailings

  38. Underground Coal Mine

  39. Sterling Hill Zinc Mine, Franklin, New Jersey

  40. Knox Mine Before Disaster

  41. Room and Pillar Mine

  42. Sink Hole – Cargill, Kansas

  43. Sink Hole

  44. Cross Section of Sink Hole