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5 th Grade Earth Science

5 th Grade Earth Science

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5 th Grade Earth Science

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  1. 5th Grade Earth Science Chapter 9 Earth’s Changing Surface

  2. What is the Earth made of? • Landforms on Earth include: • __________ • __________ - flat land • ________ - a deep crack • ______ - flatlands with few trees • _______ - on land where mountains are close together • ______ - beneath the ocean, long row of towering mountains • ________ - long narrow canyons in the ocean floor Mountains Plateaus Gorges Plains valleys Ridges Trenches

  3. Earth’s Layers • The Earth is composed of three distinct layers: • ______ - outermost solid layer of the Earth. • The part of the Earth where life is sustained • This layer includes _____and _____ that covers the surface • The crust is covered by _______ and dry _______ • The thickness of the Earth’s crust varies Crust soil rock ocean land

  4. Earth’s Crust

  5. The Mantle • 2. The _______ - is the layer of Earth just below the Earth’s crust. • This layer contains most of the Earth’s _______ - the amount of matter in an object • The outer part of the mantle closes to the crust is _____ • The inner part of the mantle furthest from the crust is made of rock that is so hot that it can _____ very slowly. Mantle mass solid flow

  6. Structure of the Earth

  7. The Core • 3. The ____ - the innermost layer of the Earth. The core is made primarily of ______. • This layer is most compact because of all of the weight above it • The core is divided into two distinct parts: • ___________ - located closest to the mantle. This layer is so hot that it is liquid • ___________ - located furthest from the mantle and crust – this layer is solid core iron Outer core Inner Core

  8. Layers of the Earth

  9. Section Assessment • Page 265 questions 1-3

  10. Earth’s Plates • _________ - the Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle. • The lithosphere is not a continuous layer it is made up of pieces called ______________. • The tectonic plates are of varying shapes and sizes but they all fit together like a puzzle. • Much of the Earth’s lithosphere is under ________ and other bodies of water. • There are ____ major tectonic plates lithosphere Tectonic plates oceans 10

  11. Tectonic Plates

  12. Spreading Ocean Floor • ____________ - chain of mountains running along the floor of the Atlantic ocean. • ____________ - A scientist in 1960 claimed that new crust forms at ocean ridges – this explains the existence of trenches and ridges. • ________ - molten rock, pushes upward from the Earth’s crust. As the magma cools it forms new crust. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Henry Hess magma

  13. What causes Magma to rise? • As Earth plates move away from each other, the ocean floor spreads apart and new crust rises to fill the gaps. • What causes the plates to move apart? • __________ - 1930’s when a liquid is heated, particles speed up and move apart. • ___________ weigh less and float above ____________. Arthur Holmes Hot liquids Cooler liquids

  14. Convection • _________ - as the hot liquid rises and cools it becomes heavier again and sinks, more hot liquid can rise above again – transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or gas. • Currents in the ________ constantly rise from the slow flow of the molten rock, circle around and then fall. • Convection is the _______ that moves the Earth’s plates. convection mantle force

  15. Theory of Plate Tectonics • ________________ - the _________ is broken into 20 moving plates. • Plates in constant motion and in different directions. • ____________________ - (GPS) satellites in space - determine the distance between plates and their change over time. • This theory explains many of Earth’s features Theory of Plate Tectonics lithosphere Global Positioning System

  16. Moving Continents • Continents move apart • Mountains form where plates move together • As plates move apart, magma may rise to the surface forming a ________ • Oceans may become larger or smaller • Positions of land and oceans has changed and continues to change from the time of _________ to the __________. volcano Pangea Continents

  17. Plate Boundaries • _____________ - areas where two plates meet. • _________________ - plates move away from each other • gaps form between the plates • __________________ cause magma to rise between the gaps • Huge ________ form • Sea floor spreading – ex. _____________________ Plate Boundaries Spreading boundaries Convection currents valleys Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  18. Plate boundaries continued • ______________ - plates slide past each other • _____- break in the Earth’s crust as a result of fracture boundaries – this can cause _________. • ______________ - two plates push against each other – one plate might slide underneath the other – towering mountains, deep ocean trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes can result. Fracture boundaries fault earthquakes Colliding Boundaries

  19. Boundaries and GPS

  20. Earthquakes • _________ are caused by the sudden shifting of rock as tectonic plates shift positions • Pressure builds up, rocks lurch forward, and the Earth’s crust shakes. • ______ - the underground point where the earthquake occurs • ________ - point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus. Earthquakes focus epicenter

  21. Waves • Energy from the earthquake is carried by _______. • Waves spread out from the _____ and ________. • Waves can cause the Earth to move ________, ___________, or in a ___________ • As the waves spread out from the epicenter, they __________. waves focus Volcanoes Up and down Back and forth Circular motion Lose energy

  22. Earthquakes and Plate boundaries • ____________ and _________ have had the most earthquakes because they are located on a ____________ between the Pacific plate and the North American Plate. • The strength of an earthquake can be measured on a ____________ - a series of numbers that is based on the amount of energy that is released. California Alaska Plate Boundary Magnitude scale

  23. S and P waves • http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/quakes/waves/p&s_waves.html Draw a diagram of each

  24. Volcanoes • __________ occur when magma from the mantle either flows or explodes through the crust. • Opening in the surface of the Earth through which magma rises • Occur near ______________ • Theory of plate tectonics – one plate sinks beneath another at a plate boundary – sinking crust melts into _______. • _____ - Magma that reaches the surface Volcanoes Plate boundaries magma lava

  25. Draw and Label Volcanoe page 270-271

  26. Earth’s Features • Earth’s surface is made up of many different __________. • Earth’s surface is constantly ________ and so are the landforms • ___________ - the process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces • Forces of __________ include ________ and _____ Landforms changing weathering weathering water ice

  27. Mechanical / Chemical Weathering • _________________ - process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces as a result of ice or water – MINERALS THAT MAKE UP THE ROCK DO NOT CHANGE! • ________________ - minerals that make up the rock change. • The cause of chemical weathering is a _________ with something in the environment such as ____ or ________ Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering reaction water oxygen

  28. Erosion • ________ - the process by which soil and sediments are transferred from one location to another • The movement of soil and sediments can be caused by: • _________ • ________ • ______ • ________ erosion wind water ice gravity

  29. Soil Erosion • Areas of land with no plant covering are susceptible to __________ • __________ - help prevent soil erosion by holding the soil in place • ___________ - planted by farmers in between harvests to prevent soil erosion and add nutrients to the soil • ______________ - years of drought and poor farming practices left bare areas of soil Soil erosion Plant roots Cover crops Dust Bowl of 1930’s

  30. Soil • ____ - made of weathered rock, air, water, and the remains of living things. • __________ - process of breaking down rocks through physical factors such as _____, _________, _______ or__________________. • ________ = non-living parts of the soil • As rock breaks down small pieces collect on the surface soil weathering frost drought rainwater Changes in temperature inorganic

  31. Soil Formation • _______ and _______ are plants that help break down rock. • When rocks are broken down _______are released • ___________ - dead or decaying matter such as bacteria, fungi, animals and plants. • ______ - dark colored organic matter formed from decayed plant and animal remains- _______________________ mosses lichens minerals Organic matter humus Rich in nutrients needed by plants

  32. Layers of Soil • Soils form in _____ layers • _________- a vertical cross section of the soil and rock underneath • ________ - first layer of soil, mixture of small rock pieces, humus, and other organic matter • Most living things are found in the _______ • Loose _____________ often covers the topsoil • Rainwater carries minerals from the topsoil to the 2nd layer of soil. three Soil profile topsoil topsoil Organic matter

  33. Subsoil / Parent Rock Layers • _______ - less organic matter than topsoil, lighter in color. • _________ penetrate the subsoil through rainwater and accumulate • _________ - third layer, very little organic matter found in this layer subsoil mineral Parent rock

  34. Water • _________ - solid particles that are moved from one place to another __________ - sediments that form during weathering and erosion are deposited in another location During the process of deposition, the _______ and ________ of a river’s flow changes As rivers flow to the oceans they carry ________ and ______________ which are useful to plants and animals to carry out their __________ sediments deposition shape direction sediments Dissolved minerals Life processes

  35. River Systems • Rivers and streams are _____________ - always moving and changing • _______ - begins on land that is higher than sea level – ______ pulls the water downward to a lower area • _____ - streams join until a river is formed • River water wears down soil and rock and carries their ________ away in different places Dynamic systems Stream gravity river sediments

  36. Wave Energy • Ocean waves ________ and __________ a great deal of _________ • Water _______ and _______ in a circular motion • __________ contained in the waves moves forward • _________________ interferes with the waves movements – causes waves to slow Pass along carry energy rises falls energy Shallower ocean bottom

  37. Waves continued • Wind Waves are formed when energy is transferred from the ________ to the _______ • ____________ depends on the _________ and how __________ and _____________ • Waves can also be caused by: • ______________ • _______________ • ______________________ wind water Size of waves Wind speed Long it blows Distance it covers tectonic activity Volcanic eruptions Earthquakes and landslides

  38. Dynamic Systems • __________ are dynamic systems because the energy from waves has the power to • _________ also build up beaches by moving sand along the shore • _________ created when waves move materials from the shoreline to an area away from the shore • __________ - places where water bodies are separated from the open ocean beaches waves sandbar lagoons

  39. Beaches • ________ formed when wind carries sand along the shore - sand builds up into small hills • ______________are constantly changing as a result of ________ and ______ • _____ and ________ of any beach is determined by the sources of its ______ and _____ - no two beaches are the same! dunes Coastal Landforms wind water Color texture sand rock

  40. Section Assessment • Question 1 on page 278

  41. Section Assessment • Questions 1-3 page 281

  42. Minerals • ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. • Earth’s crust contains more than _________ minerals – only two dozen are common. • Examples: diamond, quartz, emerald copper • Minerals are made up of ______. • Particles of _______ are arranged in a particular repeating pattern. Mineral 4,000 kinds crystals crystals

  43. Crystals • _______ form when minerals are made in nature • Each type of mineral has its own unique chemical __________. • Differences in minerals result from the way that particles are arranged. • Brass – Copper + Zinc –____________because it does not occur naturally Mineral structure Not a mineral

  44. Identifying Minerals • Minerals are identified by their ____________ • _______________ - a scale to measure hardness of a mineral • The range of the harness scale is from 1 (_______) to 10 (______) • Talc has a harness of __ / diamond is a _____ • ________ - refers to how difficult it is to scratch its surface characteristics Moh’s hardness scale Softest Hardest 1 10 hardness

  45. Other Mineral Characteristics • _______ - a mineral may have different crystals depending on the kinds of materials that make up its ______. • The color of a mineral can be seen in its ______. • A mineral can also be identified by the ______ of its crystals. • _______ - minerals show particular patterns when they are broken along flat planes. Color crystals streak shape Cleavage

  46. Luster • ______ - the appearance of a mineral in reflected light. • A mineral may appear: • __________ • __________ • __________ • __________ • __________ Luster Metallic Nonmetallic Greasy Glassy Waxy

  47. Rocks • _____ - a solid, natural material made up of one or more minerals • ___________ - as time passes, rock break down, and the minerals in them are recycled – pattern of change • The rock cycle takes place over ________ of years. • There are three types of rocks: __________, __________, and __________ rock Rock cycle millions sedimentary igneous metamorphic

  48. Sedimentary Rock • ______________ - made from pieces of rocks and minerals • Sedimentary rock forms in ________ - the oldest rock at the bottom and the newest rock on top. • Sedimentary rock is like a “_________” - past events captured in each layer. • _____ - remains of once living animals or plants Sedimentary rock layers History book fossils

  49. Sedimentary Rock Continued • Fossils are ONLY found in _____________ • Example of sedimentary rock = ________ • Limestone is made from _________________ or from dissolved __________ that settle out of seawater. Sedimentary rock limestone Shells of tiny sea animals minerals