Age of Exploration…orAge of Invasion? Pre-Columbian Societies, Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings 1492-1690
In the beginning… Small Diomede islands are all that remain above sea level today Beringia: mankind’s gateway to America
Early inhabitants of the Americas Who were the earliest Americans? What/who do you know? Pre-conceived notions? Civilized societies? (GREEL)
Early inhabitants of the Americas Civilizations in Central/South/North a) MIA’s (Mayans, Incas, Aztecs) b) Mound Builders (MS Valley)-Cahokia c) Great Plains-nomadic (Sioux, Pawnee) d) NE-Iroquois (League of the Iroquois) e) SW-Pueblo (intricate irrigation, stone/mud buildings) 1490s pop. in the Americas=50-75 million; 1492 U.S/Canada=10 million
Mayans: Yucatan rainforests Incas: Peru • Mayans: A.D. 300 & 800 • Centuries later: I&A • Extensive trade • Calendars • Extensive size Aztecs: central Mexico Capital: Tenochtitlan
Cortes/Aztecs Tenochtitlan-over 200,000 inhabitants when Cortes invades Makes Montezuma II his puppet Took Aztec gold, forced Indians to provide labor to mine more Disgruntled Aztecs stoned Montezuma to death and attacked Cortes Smallpox infected Aztecs and led to their demise; leaders were hung and devoured by Cortes, per his orders
Cahokia/mound builders Pueblo Iroquois/longhouses Sioux/nomadic Plains
Indirect Discoveries Norse (Vikings) 985: Eric the Red, Greenland 1000 AD: son, Leif Ericsson, Newfoundland; probably first European to reach N.A. Marco Polo 1275-1292, Italy Explored China, opened up trade in the Far East
Norwegian legends say Leif was followed by another expedition that stayed in Newfoundland for 3 years until being driven out by Natives. The colonists didn’t return and for the next 4 ¾ centuries, there was no known contact between Europeans and North Americans, until the late 1400s-1500s when a series of voyages took place. Why was this accomplished in the late 15th century and not before?
Moves toward exploration Renaissance: intellectual, artistic, scientific, creativity, technological change, attitudes, religious zeal/conflict (1350-1600, height late 1400s, early 1500s) Technological growth gunpowder (Chinese) sailing compass (Chinese) improvements in shipbuilding, mapmaking printing press-1450, Johannes Gutenberg
Reasons To Sail Political power (centralized nation states: common culture/loyalty)-provide means to finance/support exploration (Portugal, France, Spain, Netherlands, England), bring in revenue Urbanization Economic (competition for trade: Africa, India, China), greed, NW Passage? Religious zeal (Catholic vs. Protestant) (Protestant Reformation, Calvinism-1500s vs. Catholic Spain) Curiosity Advances in technology and knowledge BUT…Expensive, dangerous and time consuming
Early ExplorationsColumbus’ Legacy Seeking sea route to the Indies Desiring success: enrich family, gain honor/fame, convert people to Catholicism, trade spices and herbs (food, medicine), rivalry with Portugal (better route) 1492-Isabella and Ferdinand (Spain) Landed October 12-San Salvador in the Bahamas Brought gifts, including “Indians” back 3 subsequent trips Died believing he found a western route to Asia
Columbus’ Legacy Positives vs. Negatives?
Negatives: failure-didn’t find a new route, found a “New World” erroneously named “Indians” land discovered not even named after him, but rather another Italian, Amerigo Vespucci exchanges-germs/diseases Positives: skills as a navigator daring/commitment permanent interaction between Europeans and Native Americans exchanges: new era of trade (Columbian Exchange)
Columbian Exchange Americas to E,A,A: syphillis; from E,A,A: wheel, guns
When worlds collide Spain and Portugal-1st to lay claim to New World territory 1493-Pope in Rome asked to help settle the dispute (moved line few degrees to the west-Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494) Line of Demarcation Divide all other lands on Earth not claimed by other Christians Laid groundwork for SP. Wealth/success in New World
Spanish Successes Owed power in the New World to explorers and conquistadores (conquerors)-see h.o. Secured initial supremacy Gold supply up 500%; richest and most powerful nation in Europe=competition 1565-first city in present day U.S.-St. Augustine-had over 100 shops and homes, a fort, church, fish market, etc.
Spanish Successes San Francisco Missions Used religion as an instrument of control Catholic missions taught Christianity to Indians
Spanish Successes The spread of the horse in America “horses changed everything”
French Successes 1st to pose a threat to the Spanish Canada/Great Lakes region Quebec Fur trapping