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POST-WWI FOREIGN POLICY AND WORLD WAR II. Unit VIC AP U.S. History. Fundamental Questions. How did the United States foreign policy change from 1920 to 1945? How did World War II expand the United States government?. Foreign Policy After World War I.

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fundamental questions
Fundamental Questions
  • How did the United States foreign policy change from 1920 to 1945?
  • How did World War II expand the United States government?
foreign policy after world war i
Foreign Policy After World War I
  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points and League of Nations disregarded by Irreconcilables and Reservationists in the Senate
  • The horrors of WWI and the domestic turmoil led the American public to return to isolationism
  • The U.S. during the 1920s pursued policies and initiatives to preserve and expand its global economic interests and world peace
foreign policy in 1920s
Foreign Policy in 1920s
  • Washington Naval Conference (1921)
    • Four-Power Treaty
      • Status quo in Pacific
    • Five-Power Treaty
      • USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy
      • 5:5:3:1.75:1.75
    • Nine-Power Treaty
      • Reaffirming Open Door Policy
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
    • Renounced aggressive military action
    • No provision for direct action against war
  • Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
    • Prevented economic recovery for European nations devastated by WWI
  • Dawes Plan (1924)
    • Cycle of payments between U.S. banks, German reparations, Allied war debts
building an axis of totalitarianism
Building an Axis of Totalitarianism
  • Desperate times called for desperate measures in some nations providing opportunities for fascists, dictators, and ultranationalists
  • Japan
    • Ultranationalists controlled Japan and pursued aggressive expansion in the Far East
    • Manchuria Invasion – Manchukuo (1931)
  • Italy
    • Mussolini and Fascism
      • National solidarity over civil liberties and individualism
      • Dictatorship and single party system
      • State corporatism
  • Germany
    • Hitler and Nazism
      • Fascism with Jews and other minorities as scapegoats
fdr s good neighbor policy
FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy
  • Pan-American Conference (1933, 1936)
    • Ended interventionist policies justified through Roosevelt Corollary, dollar diplomacy
    • Mutual defense against aggressive European nations
  • Cuba and the Platt Amendment
    • Nullified Platt Amendment
    • Kept Guantanamo Bay naval base
fdr s foreign policy of the great depression
FDR’s Foreign Policy of the Great Depression
  • London Economic Conference (1933)
    • Global economic policies to stabilize currencies and thwart Depression
    • FDR withdrew to avoid impact on New Deal
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements
    • Reciprocated tariff decreases
  • Recognize the Soviet Union
    • Open up a new market in the wake of the Depression
american isolationists
American Isolationists
  • Characteristics
    • Midwest region
    • Rural sectors
    • Republicans and conservatives
  • Nye Committee
    • Determined reason for U.S. entry into WWI was for industrialists, corporations, banks (“merchants of death”)
  • Neutrality Acts (1935-1937)
    • Oppose or prohibit assistance and trading with belligerent nations
  • America First Committee
    • Avoid possible entanglements with European affairs in WWII
    • Promote isolationism across the nation
the axis assaults and appeasement
The Axis Assaults and Appeasement
  • Italy
    • Invasion of Ethiopia (1935)
  • Japan
    • Invasion of China (1937)
  • Germany
    • Remilitarization of the Rhineland (1936)
    • Aunchluss and the Sudetenland (1938)
    • Invasion of Poland (Sept. 1939)
  • Global Response
    • Violations of Open Door Policy and Treaty of Versailles
    • League of Nations powerless
    • Soviet Union and Germany’s Non-Aggression Pact
    • Munich Conference (1938)
    • Poland invasion begins World War II in Europe
fdr s preparedness to axis aggression
FDR’s Preparedness to Axis Aggression
  • FDR worried about further Axis expansion, but Americans preferred isolationism
  • Convinced Congress to raise military budget
  • Preparedness as a means of defense of possible Axis invasion of Western Hemisphere
  • Cash and Carry (1939)
    • Nation could buy American arms if paid in cash and used own naval ships
    • Widely favored Great Britain
  • Selective Service Act (1940)
    • Peacetime draft
  • Destroyers-for-Bases (1940)
    • Old American destroyers for U.S. military bases on British territories
election of 1940
Election of 1940
  • Republicans
    • Wendell Willkie
  • Democrats
    • Franklin Delano Roosevelt for unprecedented third term
    • Economic expansion and threat of war
arsenal of democracy
“Arsenal of Democracy”
  • Four Freedoms
    • Defense of speech, religion, from want, from fear
  • Lend-Lease Act (1941)
    • Provide arms to Great Britain on credit and decisively pro-British “neutrality”
  • Atlantic Charter
    • FDR and Churchill meet
    • Promote and secure self-determination and free trade
    • No pursuit of territorial expansion
  • “Shoot on site…”
    • American naval escorts authorized to defend against German u-boat attacks
empire of japan and pearl harbor
Empire of Japan and Pearl Harbor
  • Japan’s aggressive expansion threatened American investments and interests in Pacific
  • Embargoes on Japan
    • Prohibited trade of steel and oil
    • Required Japan’s halt on expansion and removal from China
  • December 7, 1941
    • Japanese surprise attack on U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
    • 2,400 Americans killed
    • Pacific Fleet badly damaged
    • “a date that will live in infamy”
  • U.S. Enters WWII
    • U.S. declares war on Japan (12/8/41)
    • Germany and Italy declare on U.S.
    • German invasion of Soviet Union (1942)
    • Allies
      • U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union
    • Axis
      • Germany, Italy, Japan
wwii economic impact
WWII Economic Impact
  • Production levels skyrocketed and essentially ended the Great Depression
    • GDP 1933: $56.4 BILLION
    • GDP 1941: $126.7 BILLION
    • GDP 1945: $223.1 BILLION
    • National debt skyrockets even beyond Depression spending
      • 1929: $16.9 billion
      • 1935: $28.7 billion
      • 1941: $48 billion
      • 1945: $247 billion
  • Employment
    • Unemployment: 1.2% in 1944
    • Labor unions significantly grew in membership
  • Agriculture
    • Federal government demanded crop/food production
    • Farm incomes rose dramatically and tenant farming significantly decreased
    • Some farmers migrated toward industries/cities
      • 17% decline in farm population by 1945
  • Industry
    • War-based production
    • Technological innovation and newer industries/businesses
  • Financing the War
    • Revenue Act of 1942
    • War bonds
  • Economic Benefits
    • Keynesian economics proven with government intervention and productive results
    • Significant increase in relative incomes especially for lower and middle classes
    • G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act) (1944)

War bonds helped the

government finance the


wwii expands the federal government
WWII Expands the Federal Government
  • FDR and executive agencies given broad powers to facilitate the war efforts
    • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943) allowed government to nationalize industries threatened with strikes
    • Federal Bureaucracy Expands and Evolves
      • New Deal to war agencies
      • Civilian employment: 1 million to 4 million
      • Business and manager types hired into agencies
  • War Agencies
    • War Production Board (WPB)
      • Virtual nationalization of industries which transformed production for war use
    • Office of Price Administration (OPA)
      • Prices, wages, and rents locked and frozen for consumer goods to avoid war inflation
      • Rationing of goods to supply war efforts
        • Ration books
        • Mandated national speed Limit: 35 MPH
      • Limited consumerist society
    • Office of Censorship
      • Absolute discretion to limit or prohibit certain war-related information and communication
    • Office of War Information (OWI)
      • Similar to Committee of Public Information (WWI)
      • Government information service used for promotion of patriotism through various mediums of information and entertainment
  • Industry and Defense
    • More emphasis on productive components of the economy
    • Continued spending and development after WWII
wwii in american society
WWII in American Society
  • Women
    • Women assumed jobs left by men
      • 5 million women entered the workforce, including industrial employment
      • Rosie the Riveter
    • Women in the military
      • 200,000 women assumed non-combatant roles as nurses, typists, communication operators
  • Blacks
    • Factory jobs opened up for blacks and more left the South heading north and west
    • Resentment based on racism led to some violence and race riots
    • Smith v. Allwright prohibited denial of voting in primaries
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (1942)
      • Initiated sit-ins and boycotts
  • Mexicans
    • Braceros allowed for Mexican farmers to work on farms with little immigration red tape
    • Zoot suit riots due to white resentment
  • Natives
    • Navajo code during WWII
    • Many Natives left reservations for military service or factory jobs
japanese in world war ii u s
Japanese in World War II U.S.
  • Americans of Japanese descent remained loyal to U.S. as civilians and soldiers
    • 442nd Infantry of Nisei servicemen became the most highly decorated group during WWII
  • Japanese internment camps
    • Irrational fear of Japanese infiltration
    • Executive Order 9066
    • Over 100,000 Japanese immigrants and Americans forced from homes and businesses to internment camps around western region
    • Germans and Italians were placed in separate camps but nowhere near the number of Japanese
  • Korematsu v. United States (1944)
    • Supreme Court ruled internment camps constitutional in wartime
election of 1944

Thomas E. Dewey

Campaigned against New Deal elements


Unprecedented 4th term due to war and popularity

Selects Harry S. Truman as VP to ensure party unity

Assumes presidency upon FDR’s death in April 1945

Election of 1944
atlantic theater
Atlantic Theater
  • Soviets held at Stalingrad and pushed west toward Germany
  • Americans/British launched Operation Torch in North Africa (1942)
  • Italian Invasion (1943)
  • D-Day (June 6, 1944) opened western front
  • Unconditional surrender by Germany on May 7, 1945 (V-E Day)
pacific theater
Pacific Theater
  • Japan controlled most of Far East and Southeast Asia
  • Battle of Midway (June, 1942)
    • Destroyed most of Japanese fleet and turning point
  • Island-hopping
  • Not without a fight…
    • Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944)
      • kamikazes
    • Iwo Jima (Feb-Mar 1945)
    • Okinawa (Apr-June 1945)
atomic bombs
Atomic Bombs
  • Manhattan Project
  • “utter destruction” or invasion?
  • August 6, 1945 on Hiroshima
  • August 9, 1945 on Nagasaki
  • Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945
    • V-J Day
war conferences
War Conferences
  • Teheran (Nov 1943)
    • Agree to open western front against Germany
  • Yalta (Feb 1944)
    • German occupation zones
    • New peace organization - United Nations
  • Potsdam (July-Aug 1945)
    • Japanese surrender
    • War crimes trial - Nuremberg Trials
    • Disputes over “spheres of influence” between U.S. and Soviet Union
world war ii costs
World War II Costs
  • 70 million deaths or 4% of world population
    • 25 million military
    • 45 million civilians
    • Genocides
      • Holocaust
      • Nanking Massacre
  • United States
    • Over 300,000 casualties
    • $320 billion cost
    • Government spending soared with $250 billion debt
world war ii legacy
World War II Legacy
  • World War II was deadlier and costlier than World War I
  • United Nations established with U.S.A. membership
  • Superpowers
    • War devastated old European powers and Japan; China recommenced civil war
      • Capitalism and Communism
      • Individualism and Collective Society
      • Soon engage in the Cold War