Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy Part I: The Bush and Clinton Years

  2. What have been three goals of American foreign policy during the post-Cold War era? • Foreign aid • Humanitarian aid • Support for human rights

  3. Has involvement in conflicts in other areas of the world been part of American foreign policy since 1988? • YES

  4. Who was president when the Cold War ended? • George Herbert Walker Bush

  5. During the Cold War, what were the six East European communist satellites of the Soviet Union?

  6. 1) East Germany • 2) Poland • 3) Hungary • 4) Romania • 5) Bulgaria • 6) Czechoslovakia

  7. To what defensive military alliance did the six Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe belong? • The Warsaw Pact

  8. What the most important symbol of the Cold War division of Europe from 1961 until 1989? • The Berlin Wall

  9. What happened to the Berlin Wall in 1989? • German citizens tore down the Berlin Wall

  10. Where did communist governments collapse during the presidency of George H. W. Bush? • Eastern Europe • The Soviet Union

  11. Into what two countries did Czechoslovakia split after the communists lost control of the government? • The Czech Republic • Slovakia

  12. What two beliefs did Eastern Europe adopt after the fall of communism? • Democracy • Free market capitalism

  13. What European country reunified in late 1990 under a democratic government? • Germany

  14. What communist nation broke up into fifteen separate nations by the end of 1991? • The Soviet Union

  15. What was the situation in Yugoslavia in 1990, during George H. W. Bush’s presidency? • Yugoslavia was showing signs of collapse.

  16. What kind of government did Yugoslavia have from the end of World War II until 1990? • Communist

  17. What did it mean for Yugoslavia to be non-aligned during the Cold War? • Was neutral • Sided with neither the United States nor the Soviet Union

  18. What defensive military alliance did the United States lead during the Cold War? • NATO

  19. What defensive military alliance did the Soviet Union lead during the Cold War? • The Warsaw Pact

  20. Where was Yugoslavia located? • Europe’s Balkan Peninsula

  21. What type of government did Yugoslavia have after World War II? • Communist

  22. What did four of the six republics of Yugoslavia do in 1991 and 1992? • Declared their independence from Yugoslavia

  23. What two republics remained part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia? • Serbia • Montenegro

  24. What three ethnic groups lived in Bosnia-Herzegovina? • Bosnians • Serbs • Croats

  25. What was the religion of the Bosnians? • Muslims

  26. What was the religion of the Serbs? • Eastern Orthodox Christians

  27. What was the religion of the Croats? • Roman Catholics

  28. What ethnic group did not want Bosnia-Herzegovina to become independent from Yugoslavia? • The Serbs

  29. What broke out in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992? • Civil war between the Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians

  30. What two American presidents had to deal with the civil war in Bosnia? • George H. W. Bush • Bill Clinton

  31. When did the civil war in Bosnia attract worldwide attention?

  32. When it became known that Serbian forces were practicing “ethnic cleansing” against Bosnian, Muslims, and Croats

  33. What did Serbian troops do to more than two million Bosnian Muslims and Croats? • Took them from their homes and put them into refugee camps

  34. What did the press report about “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia?

  35. 1) Mass murders of civilians • 2) Massacres of Muslim men and boys • 3) Existence of concentration camps

  36. To what was the Serbian “ethnic cleansing” of Bosnia Muslims compared? • Nazi Germany’s attempted genocide of European Jews during World War II

  37. What is genocide? • The intentional destruction of an entire racial, religious, or cultural group

  38. Who else started killing Muslims in Bosnia? • Croats

  39. What are atrocities? • Acts of violence

  40. Did either President Bush or President Clinton intervene directly in Bosnia by sending American ground troops there? • No

  41. How did Presidents Bush and Clinton try to stop the civil war in Bosnia? • Tried to work through the United Nations • Tried to work through NATO

  42. When was a peace treaty signed in Bosnia? • 1995

  43. What was the role of NATO under the terms of the peace treaty that ended the civil war in Bosnia? • NATO would enforce peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina

  44. How did NATO enforce peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina? • NATO sent a peacekeeping force of 60,000 troops to the Balkans, including 20,000 Americans.

  45. What country invaded Kuwait in 1990? • Iraq

  46. Who was the dictator of Iraq? • Saddam Hussein

  47. What is the major source of wealth in Kuwait? • Oil

  48. How did the United States react to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait? • President Bush said the Iraqi invasion violated Kuwait’s national sovereignty

  49. What did world leaders fear Hussein might do as a result of the invasion of Kuwait? • Threaten Saudi Arabia and its oil reserves

  50. What action did the United Nations Security Council take regarding the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait?