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Post World War II

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  1. Post World War II Cold War (1945 – 1989) Korean War (1950 – 1953) Civil Rights Era (1945 – 1975) Vietnam Era (1954 – 1976)

  2. Post WWII • GI Bill of Rights • “government issue” • 1944 Congressional act which gave veterans money to spend on businesses, homes, and schooling • Helped more than 2 million former soldiers attend college to prepare for new careers • Baby Boom • Increased birthrate following WWII

  3. Post WWII • Philippines • 1946, U.S. gave Filipinos their independence • State of Israel • May 14, 1948 • an independent nation

  4. WWII – Review • Yalta Conference • Allies agreed to divide Germany & Berlin into 4 zones controlled by Americans, British, French & Soviets • Stalin promised to hold free elections in parts of Eastern Europe under his control

  5. Atlantic Charter – Review • Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill agreed to seek no territorial gain from the war • FDR and Churchill pledged to support the “right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live.” (self-determination) • The Charter called for a “permanent system of general security,” such as an organization like the League of Nations (United Nations)

  6. Post WWII • United Nations • June 26, 1945 • Keep the peace • Gather food & supplies for needy nations • Homes for war victims • Help developing nations with problems of health, farming, and education

  7. Post WWII • United Nations • General Assembly • No way to enforce decisions • Security Council • More powerful • 15 members • 5 permanent members • U.S., Russia, China, Britain, France • If only one permanent member vetoes, Security Council cannot act

  8. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Truman (like FDR) believed in self-determination • U.S. demanded free elections be held throughout Eastern Europe • Much was occupied by the Soviet Union • Stalin promised to allow free elections, but went back on his word after WWII • He wanted military security for the Soviet Union, and for his country to be the dominant world power

  9. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Ideological conflict • Fought with words & ideas • Primarily between U.S. and Soviet Union • Communism vs. Democracy • Dominated world politics

  10. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • International Organizations • United Nations • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) • April 1949 • U.S. and other Western nations • Military alliance – collective defense against a Soviet attack • Warsaw Pact • 1955 • Soviet Union and satellite nations

  11. Cold War 1945 – 1989

  12. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • “A freely elected government in any of the Eastern European countries would be anti-Soviet, and that we cannot allow.” – Josef Stalin • By 1948, the government of most nations in Eastern Europe were satellites of Soviet Union • Nations dominated politically or economically by a more powerful nation

  13. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Winston Churchill • Warned Americans of the Soviet threat in a speech on March 5, 1946, at Westminster College in Fulton, MO • An “iron curtain has descended across the continent”, walling off Soviet-dominated nations from the rest of the world

  14. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Truman Doctrine • March 1947 • Containment • Limit or block expansion of Soviet Communism

  15. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Marshall Plan • June 1947 • Proposed by Secy. of State George Marshall • Provided money to help European nations rebuild after WWII • Factories, schools, hospitals, railroads, bridges, farms • Huge success • 1948-1951, U.S. loaned >$12 billion to 16 Western European countries

  16. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Germany & Berlin • Divided into 4 parts • East Germany – Communist • Soviet Union • West Germany – Democracy • Great Britain • France • U.S.

  17. Cold War 1945 – 1989

  18. Cold War 1945 – 1989

  19. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Western powers decided it was time to reunite Germany in 1948, but Stalin was opposed • June 1948, Soviets set up a blockade around Berlin and prevented delivery of Allied supplies • Berlin Airlift • Cargo planes delivered tons of food and supplies to 2M people in West Berlin • >200,000 flights from June 1948 – May 1949 • May 1949, Soviets call off blockade

  20. Cold War (1945 – 1989) Berlin Airlift

  21. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • October 1949, U.S., Britain, & France combine their zones into one country – West Germany • A divided Germany and Berlin remained a focus of Cold War tensions • Between 1949 and 1961, thousands of East Germans fled to West Berlin, then into West Germany • Berlin Wall • Built in August 1961 • Separated East and West Germany • Stood for 28 years as a symbol of a divided Germany and Europe

  22. Berlin Wall

  23. Berlin Wall

  24. Berlin Wall Westminster College Fulton, MO

  25. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Election of 1948 • Chicago Tribune mistakenly declared Thomas Dewey the winner over Harry Truman

  26. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • People’s Republic of China • In late 1949, Chinese Communists take control of China • Mao Zedong – leader

  27. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Election of 1952 • Truman decides not to run • Democrat Adlai Stevenson, Gov. of IL • Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican war hero • “I like Ike” • Landslide victory

  28. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • 1950s • People live longer thanks to new medicines (antibiotics) and polio vaccine • Suburbs grew by 50% • Poor & less educated stayed in inner cities • By end of decade: • 6 of 10 families owned homes • 3 out of 4 had cars • Almost every home had a TV

  29. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • 1950s • Television • I Love Lucy, most popular show • Howdy Doody popular with kids • Frozen dinners • Rock-and-Roll • Elvis Presley, “The King” • “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley and the Comets

  30. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Dwight D. Eisenhower • President 1953-1961 • Vice President – Richard Nixon • Interstate Highway Act of 1956 • One of Eisenhower’s greatest achievements

  31. Cold War (1945 – 1989) Korean War (1950 – 1953) Officially a “police action,” not a war

  32. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean Peninsula • Occupied & ruled harshly by Japan since 1910 • After Japan’s defeat in WWII, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel latitude • North Korean troops invaded South Korea • June 25, 1950

  33. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 - 1953 • North Korea (communist) • Helped by Communist China and backed by Soviet Union • South Korea (non-communist) • Helped by United Nations and backed by the U.S.

  34. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • War against communism • U.N. voted to send military troops – 90% were American • Pres. Truman appointed Gen. Douglas MacArthur to lead the troops

  35. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • North Korea invaded South Korea and occupied most of the peninsula • Gen. MacArthur and UN forces counterattacked, pushing North Koreans back across the 38th parallel • Gen. MacArthur continues into North Korea, almost to China • UN goal was to reunify Korea

  36. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • Angered Chinese government sent troops to assist North Korea • China pushed UN forces beyond the 38th parallel and back into South Korea and the war became a stalemate • Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China • He believed this was the only way to win the Korean War • Pres. Truman did not want to attack China • He feared this might lead to another world war

  37. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • Gen. MacArthur publicly called for the bombing of China • Pres. Truman warned Gen. MacArthur against making further public statements • Gen. MacArthur disregarded Pres. Truman’s warnings • MacArthur publicly argued that he could not win the war because of Washington politicians • A furious Pres. Truman fired Gen. MacArthur

  38. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • Peace talks began in July 1953, but fighting continued • Fighting ended in July 1953 with a cease-fire • The border between North and South Korea is almost exactly where it was before the war • Tensions between North and South Korea continue today • North and South Korea agreed to establish a demilitarized zone • An area from which military forces are prohibited

  39. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Korean War: 1950 – 1953 • Korea was the first attempt by the U.S. to stop communism in Asia • 2M Koreans died, mostly civilians • 30,000 Americans died & thousands from other nations • Officially, it was a “police action,” not a war • Korea is the last communist hot spot • It developed nuclear weapons at the beginning of the 21st century

  40. Cold War (1945 – 1989) Red scare in America Many Americans fear Communist sympathizers and spies might be secretly working to overthrow the U.S. government

  41. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Alger Hiss • Former State Dept. official • Accused of passing government secrets to Soviet agents in 1930s • The “pumpkin papers” • Convicted of perjury, spent several years in prison

  42. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Julius and EthelRosenberg • Found guilty of passing secrets of the atomic bomb to Soviets • Sentenced to death and executed in 1953

  43. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • U.S. government released papers in 1990s indicating that Hiss and the Rosenbergs had been spies

  44. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Senator Joseph McCarthy • Built his career by exposing alleged Communists in U.S. government • Without evidence, sensationally accused people of being Communists • Many Americans were eager to believe him

  45. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • McCarthy bullied witnesses before his Senate committee and made exaggerated charges • He ruined many lives and careers • McCarthyism • Accusing someone of disloyalty without having any evidence

  46. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Nikita Khrushchev • 1953, became leader of Soviet Union when Josef Stalin died • Predicted Communism would destroy Western democracies

  47. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • U.S. and Soviet Union began arms race • Contest in which nations compete to build powerful weapons • U.S. exploded first hydrogen bomb in 1952 (H-bomb) • Followed in next few years by Soviet Union, China, United Kingdom, and France

  48. Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Sputnik I • Launched October 4, 1957by Soviet Union • World’s 1st artificial satellite • 1st man-made object to orbit the Earth • 184 lbs. • About the size of a basketball • Took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth at 18,000 mph

  49. Sputnik I – launched by Soviet Union