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World War II and the Post-War Period. Lecture 1 Labor During the War. Administrative. Reading reminder – All the rest of the reading on this topic by the next class. Review. Dramatic Changes in labor and employment law in the 1920s and 1930s

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world war ii and the post war period

World War II and the Post-War Period

Lecture 1

Labor During the War

  • Reading reminder – All the rest of the reading on this topic by the next class
  • Dramatic Changes in labor and employment law in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Dramatic split in the American Federation of Labor and the creation of the CIO
  • Rapid organization of the mass production industries, especially cars, tires and steel and the role of sit-down strikes
  • Employers’ continued resistance to rights of employees and to unions
  • Wartime Economy
  • Labor Movement During the War
  • Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force
i wartime economy
I. Wartime Economy
  • Extremely full employment
  • Typical war‑time inflationary forces – Why?
  • Accordingly, for the first time in a decade, workers have jobs, money and bargaining power, but are frustrated by the absence of goods to buy
ii labor movement during the war
II. Labor Movement During the War
  • Competition continues between A.F.L. and C.I.O.
  • Both federations supported the war effort conscientiously
iii women and minorities in the war time labor force
III. Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force
  • Desperate need for workers led to dramatic increase of women working
  • Many African-Americans promoted to do jobs previously reserved for whites
  • In both cases, issue of equal pay gave rise to conflict
race issues
Race Issues
  • 1941 Randolph threatened march on Washington if the government refused to do something about discrimination
  • Roosevelt responded with Executive Order creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • Overall, sex and race barriers in employment decreased during the war
next time
Next Time
  • War-time Public Policy
  • War-time industrial conflict
world war ii and the post war period10

World War II and the Post-War Period

Lecture 2

Industrial Conflict and Public Policy

  • Begin reading on 1960s for Wednesday
    • First reading
  • Wartime Economy
    • Unemployment virtually disappeared
    • Controlled economy
  • Labor Movement During the War
    • AFL and CIO both strongly supported war effort
    • War Labor Board resolved disputes
  • Industrial Conflict during the war
  • Labor law in the war and post-war periods
i industrial conflict during the war
I. Industrial Conflict During the War
  • Unions and employers had agreed to avoid industrial conflict
  • Disputes to be resolved by War Labor Board
  • Unions thrived under the War Labor Board
  • 1941 had been a very high strike year
  • Relatively few strikes by AFL or CIO unions during the war
  • Exception was the United Mine Workers
  • 1946 post-war strike wave
  • On several occasions President Truman intervened
  • Gradually the strike wave ebbed after 1947
ii labor law in the war and post war periods
II. Labor Law in the War and Post-War Periods
  • United Mine Workers strikes during the war caused anti-union backlash
  • Response was Smith-Connally Act (1943)
smith connally
  • Empowered president to seize companies where disputes imperiled the war effort
  • Criminal penalties for those who instigated or promoted strikes
taft hartley act
Taft-Hartley Act
  • Response to the strike wave of 1946
  • Largely written by the National Association of Manufacturers
  • Passed over Truman’s veto – “Slave Labor Act”
taft hartley
  • Outlawed the closed shop
  • Allowed states to prohibit the union shop
  • Reintroduced injunctions in labor disputes in a variety of circumstances
  • Banned secondary strikes and secondary boycotts
  • Required unions to file anti-Communist affidavits for officers
taft hartley21
  • Denied unionization rights to low level managers
  • Authorized 80-day injunctions against strikes imperiling national safety and welfare
  • Introduced concept of union unfair labor practices
taft hartley22
  • Did not destroy collective bargaining where it existed
  • Did halt the momentum unions had established during the war
next time23
Next Time
  • The Landrum-Griffin Act
  • The post-war Anti-Communist scare
  • The merger of the AFL and CIO
world war ii and the post war period24

World War II and the Post-War Period

Lecture 3

The Post-War Period

  • Reading reminder
    • Memphis Sanitation strike for next class
    • Teacher unionism and Cesar Chavez for following class
  • Quiz reminder
  • Essay reminder
  • Issues of race and gender during the war
  • Relative absence of strikes during the war
  • Public Policy Issues
    • Smith-Connally Act (1943)
    • Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
  • The post-war Anti-Communist scare
  • The merger of the AFL and CIO
  • The Landrum-Griffin Act
i the communist scare
I. The Communist Scare
  • Immediate post-war period one of rabid anti-Communism
  • Anti-Communist campaign in Hollywood
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy
anti communism
  • Labor movement emerged from World War II with Communist leadership of several major CIO unions
  • Communists were also influential factions in a number of other major unions
anti communism30
  • Overall, no one more Conservative than leadership of the trade union movement
  • 1949 CIO expelled 11 unions with 20% of total CIO affiliated membership
  • In some cases (e.g. electrical products) CIO chartered new unions to replace the expelled ones
  • Other unions made Communists ineligible for office
ii the merger
II. The Merger
  • By the mid-1950s, AFL affiliates had 9 million members and CIO affiliates had 6 million
  • Reduced conflict over principles and personalities
  • New leaders George Meany and Walter Reuther
  • June 1953 negotiated “No-Raiding” pact
  • February 1955 agreed to full merger at the end of the year
    • All existing unions to be preserved
    • No raiding
    • AFL to provide both President and Secretary-Treasurer
  • Agreed on series of Campaigns
  • Much of the labor movement remained outside
    • Railway brotherhoods
    • UMW
    • ILWU
    • Teamsters (expelled for corruption)
iii the landrum griffin act
III. The Landrum-Griffin Act

Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act

  • Product of investigations of McClellan Committee
  • Evidence of rigged elections, misuse of funds, embezzlement and sweetheart contracts
  • Assumed public interest in democratic and proper union behavior
  • Assumed that unions would be unable to assure such behavior themselves
  • Purposes of the Act
    • Protect against improper union behavior
    • Protect against union-management arrangements denying members proper representation
    • Plug loopholes in Taft-Hartley
  • Bill of Rights for union members
  • Regulation of union elections
  • Discipline of Members
  • Regulation of Trusteeships
  • Regulation of Financial Conflicts of Interest
next time37
Next Time
  • Begin discussion of the 1960s