ch 14 world war ii 1930 1945 n.
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Ch. 14: World War II, 1930-1945. Sec . 2: The Allied Response European Theatre. Battle of the Atlantic. Allies must control Atlantic for its shipping lanes to supply Britain & USSR with food/weapons Germans forced to rely on U-boats again U.S. lent British ships & offered escort assistance

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battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
  • Allies must control Atlantic for its shipping lanes to supply Britain & USSR with food/weapons
    • Germans forced to rely on U-boats again
    • U.S. lent British ships & offered escort assistance
  • The Homefront
    • Mobilize army – millions volunteered/others drafted
    • Production of weaponry- peacetime industries converted to wartime production
    • Raise labor force- women & other minority groups moved into industries to produce needed supplies
    • Rationing of food, fuel, rubber, nylon; scrap drives
  • By 1943, U.S. winning the Battle for the Atlantic
north africa and italy
North Africa and Italy
  • North Africa of strategic importance
    • Control of Mediterranean Sea & Suez Canal meant access to Middle East’s oil reserves
  • 1941-’42: British forces under Gen. Bernard Montgomery fought a combined army of Italians/Germans (the AfrikaKorps) under command of Gen.Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) over Egypt & Libya
  • Nov., 1942: Allied invasion of North Africa
    • “Operation Torch”- US forces under Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower invade No. Africa from the west, placing Rommel in a 2-way trap
    • May, 1943: AfrikaKorps forced to surreneder nearly 250,000 men
italy
Italy
  • Allies invade island of Sicily in July,1943
  • By end of July, Italians have toppled the fascist government & executed Mussolini
  • German forces are pushed into Italy to try and resist the Allied advance
  • The Allies face stiff resistance and high casualty rates as they slug their way up through Italy towards southern Germany
the soviet union turns the tide
The Soviet Union Turns the Tide
  • Siege of Leningrad (Summer, 1942)
    • Having been slowed by Russian winter of ‘41-’42, Hitler lays siege to old Czarist capital of Leningrad (St. Petersburg)
    • Siege was harsh as an average of 3-4,000 civilians a day died from starvation
  • Battle of Stalingrad
    • Nazis ordered to take the industrial center of Stalingrad (vital to wartime production/shipments of food & supplies)
    • Soviet Red Army refuses to buckle & puts Nazis in retreat westward out of USSR
    • This victory, coupled with Allied victories in No. Africa & Italy, marked turning pt. of WWII