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E-TURB. RADAR – The Next “STEP”. “ S YSTEM T ECHNOLOGY E VALUATION P ROGRAM”. Prepared by Dr. Roland L. Bowles AeroTech Research (USA), Inc. Nov. 3, 2004. Outline. E- Turb. RADAR – Where are we? FY-04 ACCOMPLISHMENTS TECHNOLOGY READINESS / CURRENT STATUS

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e turb radar the next step

E-TURB. RADAR – The Next “STEP”

“SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM”

Prepared by

Dr. Roland L. Bowles

AeroTech Research (USA), Inc.

Nov. 3, 2004

outline
Outline
  • E- Turb. RADAR – Where are we?
    • FY-04 ACCOMPLISHMENTS
    • TECHNOLOGY READINESS / CURRENT STATUS
  • DEMONSTRATE DISPLAY PLAYBACK & ANALYSIS SOFTWARE USING RECORDED In Service Data
  • SUMMARY OBSERVATIONS TO DATE
e turb radar step configuration
E-TURB RADAR – “STEP” Configuration

“ SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM ”

Delta provided B737-800 NG aircraft

ROCKWELL COLLINS Radar System

Installed WXR-2100

multi - scan

transceiver & antenna

STC’s & TSO

certified

Collins advanced

2nd moment

detection algorithm

multi - lag

auto-correlation

ATR provided

hazard prediction

algorithm

& B737-800 NG

hazard tables

A/C weight to radar

Defined

hazard criteria &

thresholds

Fully Integrated

cockpit display

2 level g - threshold

“situation” display of

advisory information

E - TURB MODE CERTIFIED NON- INTERFERENCE WITH

CURRENT WX-MODES / COCKPIT PROCEDURES

system implementation concept
System Implementation Concept

FILTERED AIRCRAFT INPUTS

WEIGHT

&

BALANCE

TRUE

AIRSPEED

COLLINS DETECTION

ALGORITHM

ALTITUDE

^

ATR HAZARD

PREDICTION

ALGORITHM

2nd MOMENT

PRODUCT

( i,j )



“g” units

TO THRESHOLD

LOGIC

& DISPLAYS

SPATIAL / TEMPORAL

FILTERING

“ g” - LOAD

CALCULATION

B737-800

RAW DOPPLER

TURBULENCE MOMENTS

AIRCRAFT HAZARD

fy 04 accomplishments
FY-04 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Key Milestones

- Program Start Dec. /03

- Preliminary Design Review Mar. 3 /04

- B737-800 Hazard & Pulse Volume Mar. 3 /04

Compensation Tables Delivered *

- “Ship-Set” R/T & Antenna Installed ** Mar.27/04

- B737-800 / WXR2100 STC Approval ** Mar.28/04

- Rockwell Sabreliner Flight Tests Apr.15- June 04

- Operational Readiness Review Aug.10 /04

- TSO Certification Approval Aug.14 /04

- Evaluation R/T Installed / B737-800 ** Aug.22 /04

- In- Service Operational Evaluation Aug.23 /04 – Sept. /05

- Final Report Delivered To NASA Sept.30 /05

* ATR - Rockwell Coordination ** Rockwell - Delta Coordination

e turb radar in service evaluation
E-TURB RADAR IN-SERVICE EVALUATION

STATUS

  • SUCCESSFULY ACHIEVED SIX RADAR DATA LOGGER DOWNLOADS
  • 3708 OPERATIONS FOR PERIOD AUG. 23 - OCT. 26
  • APPROX. 25 HOURS OF RECORDED DATA
  • RADAR DATA AUGMENTED BY 69 TAPS REPORTS (3708 ONLY)
  • DEMONSTRATED PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING Beta VERSION OF E-TURB ANALYSIS & PLAYBACK SOFTWARE
  • PERMITS PLAYBACK OF LOW RESOLUTION WX+T DISPLAYS ON A SCAN-BY- SCAN BASIS
  • ENABLES COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INSITU “TRUTH” & RADAR PREDICTIVE INFORMATION
  • BASED ON DATA ACQUIRED TO DATE , WORK IS CURRENTLY FOCUSED ON SCORING E-TURB SYSTEM PERFORMANCE & IDENTIFYING “HIGH VALUE” CASE STUDIES FOR ANALYSIS

RLB

slide7
100

80

60

40

20

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

NO. EVENTS Vs. OBSERVED RMS NORMAL ACCELERATION

TURB. EVENTS* (SHIP 3708) RECORDED FOR PERIOD Aug. 23 - Sept.28

DATA SOURCE

EVENT LOGGER TRIGGERS

ADIRU#1 @ 50 hz.

Processed Identical to Taps

. PEAK ACCEL.  5 g's

RMS ACCEL.  .15 g's

RADAR PRED.  .09 g's

A total of 165 events acquired

from the first 4 data logger

Light

DISPLAY THRESHOLDS

downloads.

LEVEL 1  .09 g's

LEVEL 2  .15 g's

MANUAL TRIGGER

Light to Moderate

EVENTS

CREW DISCRETION

Note: Radar & aircraft data

is recorded for each of the

165 events. Events cover all

phases of flight.

Moderate

* 49 TAPS REPORTS FOR

THE SAME PERIOD

RLB

INSITU TRUTH RMS LOAD g's

slide8
3.0

6 FOQA Incidents

18 ICAO Events

49 NASA EVENTS (02)

18 NASA EVENTS (00)

2.5

10 NTSB Accidents

2.0

D

h

UAL 747 Pacific Accident

1.5

Regression

recent incident

1.0

recent incident

3708 DATA

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

s

D

h

Correlation of Peak Load With Peak RMS Load ( 5 sec. window)

Based on Measurements for 106 Turbulence Encounter Cases + 3708 DATA

DATA SOURCES

AIRCRAFT MIX / ALL FLIGHT PHASES

747 ' s

757 ' s

y = 4.933e-3 +2.651x R^2 = .953

767 ' s

737 ' s

L1011 ' s

DC10 ' s

* Cases Chosen for Detail

aal 757 *

Modeling to Support FAA

Peak l l

Radar Certification Effort

NASA Flt.*

g's

191 - 06

NASA R232-10

xxx 737 *

FOQA

light

(First 4 Downloads)

severe

extreme

light- mod.

Peak g's

ESTIMATED FROM RADAR OBSERVABLES FOR E-TURB. CONCEPT

RLB

evaluation methodology
Evaluation Methodology

E-Turb RADAR Indication of Turbulence

Yes

No

Yes

Correct Indication?

Missed Indication?

No

Nuisance Indication?

Correct Null?

Corroborating Data / Information Sources:

E-TURB RADAR Data / Information Sources:

Qualitative

Quantitative

Qualitative

Quantitative

  • ACARS Free Text Questions 1. - 5.
  • Crew Rept’s Not Logged On ACARS
  • FOQA
  • TAPS Rept’s, WebASD Data/ Products
  • NexRad/ Satellite Imagery/ Products
  • ACARS Free Text Question 6.
  • Crew Rept’s Not Logged On ACARS
  • Jump Seat Observer Comments (if available)
  • RADAR System Event/ Data Logger (auto & manual activation )

Technical Approach

Corroborating

Turbulence Data /

Information From

Non E-TURB RADAR

Sources

e turb radar evaluation
E-Turb RADAR Evaluation

Key Objectives

  • Establish valid data-driven answers to the four questions implied by the previous contingency table based on a case-by-case analysis using the defined turbulence data/ information sources.
    • A case study shall commence if and only if there is an affirmative (yes) response either from RADAR or a corroborating data/ information source.
    • A RADAR affirmative response shall imply exceedance of event logger triggers or display thresholds ( display paints magenta ).
  • If a sufficient number of cases are identified during the evaluation period, a statistical analysis shall be conducted to score overall performance / success of the E-Turb RADAR system.
  • Document flight operational “lessons learned” and related guidelines for improved flight safety using E-Turb technology .
scope of case studies
Scope of Case Studies
  • Detailed analysis of a limited number of high value “show case events” which high-light E-Turb RADAR performance.
  • Tabulate and place outcomes of all admissible turbulence cases in the contingency table.
  • If a sufficient number of cases are identified; conduct a statistical analysis of overall radar performance and document results.
tool set used for case by case analysis
Tool Set Used For Case-by-Case Analysis
  • Variety of airborne radar analysis software including low resolution display playback based on radar system recorded event/data logger parameters. (RC)
  • 3-D wind & turbulence estimators employing FOQA data. (ATR-DAL)
  • TAPS reports & related data including web ASD information. (ATR)
  • GIS software permitting overlay of aircraft flight path on NEXRAD/SATTELITE imagery with designated event markers on path & Flt. Vis. dynamic sim. (ATR)

Recorded E-Turb. RADAR Data

TAPS & WebASD

Products

FOQA

Selected High Value Case Studies

ACARS Free Text Questionnaire Response

WX-Info.

{

  • E -TURB Radar Display Imagery Reconstruction.
  • Recovered Turbulence / Wind Time Histories.
  • TAPS/ web ASD Imagery ( 3708 only ).
  • Prevailing WX-Information.
  • Documented RADAR Performance & Operational “Lessons Learned.”

Analysis Products

summary
SUMMARY
  • Basic WXR-2100 system appears to be performing without flaw
  • E-Turb. functioning as per design & intended function
  • Based on preliminary data, evidence exists that crews are using E-Turb. to avoid indicated turbulence
  • Preliminary data indicates good agreement between radar predicted loads and insitu truth when avoidance is not possible
  • Observer feedback & Taps reports invaluable in aiding analysis
  • Hard work ahead to score overall WX+T system performance

RLB

slide14
8

7

6

h=10 kft

"

h=25 kft

5

"

h=40 kft

"

4

3

2

1

0

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

Radar Observed 2nd. Moment Required to Achieve RMS Load= .1&.2 g's Vs. Weight

B737-800 Hazard Tables & Radar Pulse Volume Compensation

range = 25 nmi

pulse width= 2 µsec

antenna beam width= 3.8º

.2g

( M2 )^.5

current SW threshold

m /sec

g- threshold

.1 .2

over

SW

under

warn

5 m/ s

warn

.1g

.1g ~ indicative of ride quality boundary

.2g ~ indicative of safety boundary

WEIGHT klbs

RLB

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