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American empire and the Philippines. The aftermath of the Spanish-American War. the S panish-American war. The Rough Riders Mort Kunstler, 1984. The “splendid little war”. Congress declares war on Spain – April 25, 1898 Commodore George Dewey immediately moves on the Philippines.

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american empire and the philippines

American empire and the Philippines

The aftermath of the Spanish-American War

the s panish american war
the Spanish-American war

The Rough Riders

Mort Kunstler, 1984

the splendid little war
The “splendid little war”
  • Congress declares war on Spain – April 25, 1898
  • Commodore George Dewey immediately moves on the Philippines
wait what are the p hilippines
Wait! What are the Philippines?
  • Island nation in Southeast Asia
  • Spanish colony since 1521
  • Filipino nationalists had been fighting the Spanish since 1896

Here they are!

the splendid little war1
The “splendid little war”
  • Congress declares war on Spain – April 25, 1898
  • Commodore George Dewey immediately moves on the Philippines
  • Dewey defeats Spain’s navy at Manila Bay on May 1
  • US wins land and naval victories in Cuba in summer 1898
  • Armistice signed on August 12, leading to peace negotiations
  • War officially ends with the Treaty of Paris – signed December 10
the treaty of paris
The treaty of paris
  • Signed December 10, 1898
  • Ends the Spanish-American War
    • Guarantees Cuba’s independence
    • Spain gives Guam and Puerto Rico to the US
    • Spain sells the Philippines to the US for $20 million
  • But the Senate still must ratify
what to do with the p hilippines
What to do with the Philippines?

President William McKinley

the american dilemma
The American dilemma
  • The Philippines had been a Spanish colony for nearly 400 years
  • America had just fought a war in the name of “liberating” Cuba from imperial occupation
  • The US had relied on the help of Filipino rebels in defeating Spain
  • But the US also wanted to expand its holdings around the world
  • What should America do with its new possession in the Philippines?
three options
Three options
  • Annex the Philippines; create an empire
  • Give independence to the Philippines; turn away from empire
  • Take control of Manila only; focus on economic interests
the imperialists take over the philippines
The imperialists: take over the philippines
  • Major goal: make the Philippines a colony of the United States
  • Major arguments
    • Economics: Colonizing the Philippines will allow America to sell its goods to Asia
    • Manifest destiny: America is divinely ordained to take over more territory and spread its system of government
    • Democracy: America should liberate the Philippines from Spanish rule, protect it from European powers, and introduce democracy to the people
    • Racism: Americans have a duty to bring their superior form of government and way of life to less civilized, “backwards” peoples
the anti imperialists turn away from empire
The anti-imperialists:turn away from empire
  • Major goal: reject overseas acquisitions and focus on issues at home
  • Major arguments
    • Democratic principles: The US can’t be a democratic nation if it controls other countries – especially if it builds a large standing army
    • Labor: Colonizing the Philippines will introduce competition for jobs with white, native-born, American workers
    • Foreign policy: Protecting an empire will draw the US into foreign conflicts
    • Racism: Annexing the Philippines will introduce an uncivilized, barbarian people into a “pure,” Anglo-Saxon country
the businessmen take control of manila
The businessmen:take control of manila
  • Major goals
    • Establish a protectorate (the US protects the Philippines against foreign powers) and a safe harbor at Manila
    • “Open door” trade policy in Asia – no special trade privileges for Western powers
  • Major arguments
    • Making the Philippines a colony would be expensive and dangerous
    • European domination of Asia threatens American economic interests
    • Controlling Manila would allow us to more easily export American goods to China
    • A protectorate would allow America to move the Philippines toward democracy