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Healthy Bodies Unit One. By the end of this unit you should ;- 1. Know where your lungs and windpipe are. 2. Know that in the lungs,oxygen from the air enters the blood. 3. Know that in the lungs,carbon dioxide leaves the blood and gets breathed out.

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healthy bodies unit one
Healthy Bodies Unit One.
  • By the end of this unit you should ;-
  • 1. Know where your lungs and windpipe are.
  • 2. Know that in the lungs,oxygen from the air enters the blood.
  • 3. Know that in the lungs,carbon dioxide leaves the blood and gets breathed out.
  • 4. Be able to name the harmful substances in tobacco smoke.
healthy bodies unit one2
Healthy Bodies Unit One.
  • 5. Be able to measure the amount of tar in cigarette smoke.
  • 6. Know something about the diseases connected with smoking.
  • 7. Know some of the other substances which can pollute our lungs.
  • 8. Be able to state what the diaphragm and the ribs do.
how we breathe 1
How we breathe 1.
  • 1. The lungs are protected by the ribcage.
  • 2. Air enters our lungs via the trachea or wind pipe.
  • 3. When the air enters our lungs,the muscle called the diaphragm goes downwards.
  • 4. When we breathe out the diaphragm moves up and air is expelled from the lungs.
  • 5. The lungs are located in the chest.
how we breathe 2
How we breathe 2.
  • 6. The lungs are red in colour.
  • 7. This is because they contain oxygen.
  • 8. They feel spongy when touched.
  • 9. They float in water because of the air in them.
  • 10. They can be polluted by dirty air.
how we breathe 3
How we breathe 3.
  • 11. When we breathe in ,air passes to the tubes leading to the air sacs.
  • 12. These are next to blood vessels called capillaries.
  • 13. Red blood cells pick up oxygen from the sacs when we breathe in.
  • 14. They release carbon dioxide back to the sacs when we breathe out.
how we breathe 4
How we breathe 4.
  • 1. Your windpipe and other air passages are lined with a sticky substance.
  • 2. This is called MUCUS.
  • 3. This traps dirt and germs.
  • 4. Tiny hairs sweep the dirty mucus up your throat where it is swallowed.
a test for carbon dioxide
A test for carbon dioxide.
  • 1. If we blow breathed air into lime water,the lime water turns milky.
  • 2. This is because breathed air contains carbon dioxide.
  • 3. Unbreathed air will not affect the lime water.
  • 4. Breathed air contains more carbon dioxide than unbreathed air.
  • 5. Lime water can be used as a test for carbon dioxide.
another test for carbon dioxide
Another test for carbon dioxide.
  • Bicarbonate indicator can be used as another test for carbon dioxide.
  • The presence of carbon dioxide will turn the indicator from dark red to orange .
the dangers in smoking the three poisons in cigarette smoke
The dangers in smoking.The three poisons in cigarette smoke
  • 1. Nicotine : - affects the brain, is addictive.
  • 2. Carbon monoxide : - poisonous gas stops blood carrying oxygen ,can be fatal.
  • 3. Tar : - made of many chemicals, clogs up lungs, causes cancer.
air pollution
1 This is a view of the air above a street in Mexico City.

2. This called smog and is caused by exhaust fumes from cars.

Air Pollution
effects of air pollution on the body
Effects of air pollution on the body.
  • 1. Car exhaust fumes contain harmful substances from burnt petrol.
  • (a) lead particles which can cause brain damage in developing children.
  • (b) carbon monoxide reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
  • (c ) smoke clogs up air sacs.
effects of acid rain
Effects of acid rain.
  • 1. Can damage the linings of the lung.
effects of solvent abuse
Effects of solvent abuse.
  • 1. Can lead to people causing or being involved in accidents.
  • 2. Long term effects include death by choking , liver failure and damage to the heart and brain.
effects of passive smoking
Effects of passive smoking.
  • 1. Essentially the same effects as smoking itself,the only difference is that the person subjected to the effects does not smoke.
unit 2 heart and blood
Unit 2 Heart and Blood.
  • By the end of this unit you should :-
  • 1. Know where the heart is in the body.
  • 2. Know that it acts like a muscular pump.
  • 3. Know that blood carries food,heat and oxygen round the body.
  • 4. Know that blood flows through vessels.
  • 5. Know that pulse rate tells how fast your heart beats.
heart and blood
Heart and Blood.
  • 6. Know that recovery time is a measure of fitness.
  • 7. Know that blood helps the body fight germs and disease.
  • 8. Heart disease can be caused by worry,smoking and diet
  • 9. Know that we can be protected from disease by immunisation.
heart and blood20
Heart and Blood.
  • You may also know that :-
  • 1. There are three types of blood vessel,namely veins,arteries and capillaries.
  • 2. Exercise affects your pulse rate.
  • 3. Blood consists of plasma,red cells,white cells and platelets.
the heart
1. The right side of the heart takes blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs.

2. The left side of the heart takes blood from the lungs and pumps it to all parts of the body.

The Heart.
blood vessels
Blood Vessels.
  • 1. An artery is a vessel which carries blood away from the heart.
  • 2. It has a thick muscular wall.
  • 3. The blood travelling in the artery is under great pressure.
  • 4. The high pressure is caused by the heart beat.
capillaries and veins
Capillaries and Veins.
  • 1. The arteries divide into smaller vessels called capillaries.
  • 2. The capillaries join up to form larger vessels which in turn form veins.
  • 3. The veins carry blood back to the heart.
  • 4. The veins are under less pressure than the arteries.
  • 5. Veins have no pulse and are found nearer the surface than arteries.
1. The pressure has dropped by the time it reaches the veins.

2. To prevent blood from flowing backwards,the veins have valves.

3. Valves are like doors which only open one way.

blood composition
Blood Composition.
  • Blood is made up from
  • 1. Red blood cells.
  • 2. White blood cells.
  • 3. Platelets.
  • 4. A white liquid called


red blood cells
These cells are the carriers of oxygen round the body.

The chemical called haemoglobin makes the blood red.

Red blood cells.
white blood cells
White blood cells.
  • 1. These cells are responsible for building up immunity to disease.
  • 2. They build up antibodies which fight against various infections we get.
    • The platelets are the cells which cause clotting at the sight of an injury,thus helping healing of wounds.
  • This is the liquid part of the blood.
  • It is responsible for the transporting of the various things in the blood.
body temperature
Body Temperature.
  • By the end of this unit you should :-
  • 1. Know what normal body temperature is.
  • 2. Know that body temperature is higher than the surroundings.
  • 3. Know that if your body temperature is not normal you are ill.
  • 4. Know that sweating decreases body temperature.
Body Temperature.
    • 5. Shivering increases body temperature.
    • 6. Food supplies the body with energy to maintain temperature.
    • 7. Clothes stop heat loss and maintain body temperature.
    • 8. Loss in temperature causes hypothermia.

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