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Workshop 5Physical Activity andHealth Promotion Chris Williams & Billy Merchant Acknowledge the work of Anne McKay, Lorna Gillespie & Sue McBain
This Workshop • Look at the 2009 Specs and the Standard • What have you done in your schools • Background information/terms/models • Action Competence Process • Assumptions to help critique initiatives • SPARC Research – Keeping Youth in the Game • A look at the old questions • A more in depth look at the 2008 question and student exemplar • 2009?????
The Specs 2009 • Physical activity, health promotion and New Zealand society drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standard 90744 (3.6) The Standard • Examine physical activity and take action to influence the participation of others. • In small groups of 3-4 discuss what you did in your own PE programme for 3.6. Discuss what content you covered as well as the action.
Teaching & Learning Programme could include but not limited to… • Definitions and issues around physical activity, health promotion and taking action • Benefits of physical activity for well-being, how much physical activity? • Trends, issues and factors influencing participation - SPEECH • Investigation of physical activity, leisure, recreation, sport • What is out there? • Event planning • Safety management • Research methods & Ethics • Promotion • Skills of critical examination, identifying assumptions
Physical Activity • There are various concepts of physical activity: More organised Play - Recreation - Leisure - PE - Outdoor Ed – Sport (Wesson, K; Wiggins-James, N; Thompson, G; Hartigan. 2005)
Physical Activity is any activity that involves physical movement that people take part in for “fun or for the sheer pleasure or satisfaction of it, out of playfulness, or to express themselves and their creativity”. Ministry of Education (1999) Health and physical education in the New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media p. 34. • “Any form of human movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in an expenditure of energy” and also “movment that people need on a daily basis to sustain a health life. SPARC – (in towards an Active NZ)
Health Promotion Health Promotion is a process that helps to create supportive physical and emotional environments in classrooms, whole schools, communities and society..…Health promotion encourages students to make a positive contribution to their own wellbeing and that of their communities and environments Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand curriculum page 32
Health Promotion Is a process That helps to create Supportive physical and emotional environment To encourage students to Make a positive contribution to their own wellbeing and that of communities and environment
SPARC and the Ministry of Health agreed on the following NZ physical activity guidelines for children and young people (aged 5 – 18 years). • New Zealand children and young people should: • Throughout each day, do sixty minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity. • Be active in as many ways as possible, for example through play, cultural activities, dance, sport and recreation, jobs and going from place to place. • Be active with friends and whanau, at home, school and in their communities • Spend less than two hours a day (out of school time) in front of the television, computers, and game consoles. Ministry of Health (2007) See www.sparc.org.nz
Models of Health Promotion • There are 3 main models (they are not mutually exclusive) • 1. Behavioural Change Model • 2. Self-Empowerment Model • 3. Collective Action Model • Check out The Curriculum in Action: Making Meaning: Making a Difference on the TKI site.
Action Competence Process • The use of Health Promotion processes involves taking action individually and collectively to enhance people’s health/well-being, using the action competence process.
Action Competence Learning Process (Gillian Tasker 2000) The aim or the issue
Knowledge /Insight(Critical thinking) • How/why did the issue arise? • What are the physical activity needs? • What physical activity is already done and how does this meet wellbeing needs? • What/who influences participation in physical activity? • Who is advantaged / disadvantaged? • What needs are being met and what are not?
Development of Visions(Creative thinking) • What would you like to include in a physical activity programme? • What might be possible? What alternatives? • How will this meet the range of identified needs • What are the pros and cons of each idea? • What do you need to consider when planning this programme? • Which idea best meets the needs?
Understanding • What do you need to do to put this idea into action? • How will the activities you would like to include in the programme meet the needs of your group?
Planning • What do you need to do to put this plan into action? • What is going to help make this plan work? • What are some of the barriers that might hinder your plan and how could you minimise or overcome them?
Action • Put the plan into action
Reflect / Evaluate • How did it go? Did you make any progress in getting people active? How do you know? • What about sustainability? • What went well? • Were any assumptions made about the physical activity or the group? • What would you do differently next time? Why? • What needs to change in the future?
Assumptions to Critique Initiatives • HEALTHISM is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors. Ministry of Education. (2004) Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference It fails to recognise all the social, political, economical, environmental, cultural and historical (SPEECH) influences on an individuals health. It creates the conditions for “victim blaming” and guilt with respect to individual health problems.
Assumptions to Critique Initiatives • THE BODY AS A MACHINE A very scientific approach that views the body as a machine that can be fine tuned or fixed if need be - to help improve performance or well-being. This approach ignores other dimensions of hauora other than the physical. • THE MEDIA & CONSUMER CULTURE We are bombarded by the media and this socially constructs us and who we are, and what we desire to look like and lifestyle we want.
Old Exam Questions • 2006 Increasing Physical Activity in Primary Schools • 2007 Yr 13 PE class to increase physical activity to yr 9 students • 2008 Evaluating government initiatives. Youth branded websites.
2006 Question Over the past few years, there has been growing concern over the decline in levels of physical activity in children, and the links this may have to poor health in later life. Research has shown that physical activity and motor-skill development during school time improves children’s health and well-being, as well as boosting academic achievement. To ensure schools took action to promote physical activity, the education regulations were changed at the beginning of 2006. The new aim is to ensure that each child participates in at least one hour of meaningful, high-quality physical activity each week, supported by a physical activity education specialist or teacher with extra training.
With respect to this, propose and critically evaluate how you would take action to promote physical activity in a primary school. In your critical evaluation, you should: - suggest how to promote physical activity in a primary school. You may want to draw on your own experiences or examples from your schooling - evaluate your proposal - support your evaluation by considering the age of the participants, the barriers to and enablers of physical activity, the principles of training, the relationship between physical activity and hauora (as a concept of well-being), and the factors that influence participation in physical activity.
Critically evaluate the course of action the Year 13 students have planned to increase the physical activity level of the Year 9 students. A critical evaluation may: • evaluate the process of taking action that has occurred • be supported by drawing upon relevant knowledge from biophysical factors, socio-cultural factors such as hauora, diversity of outcomes people seek from participating in physical activity, barriers and enablers of physical activity, health promotion and other factors that influence participation in physical activity • use specific examples from your own learning programme to compare with and contrast to the actions taken in the scenario above.
Time to get Critically Evaluating • Step 1- 2008 Question/ Evaluate Student Exemplar. • Step 2- Brainstorm what else could have been added on the back of each sheet. Check against the mark schedule. • Step 3- Own experiences of Implementing Physical Activity Action Plans. Write Introduction/Conclusion to essay.
Guide to possible marking codes GENERAL To this Question D Depth HP Health Promotion Br Breadth PA Physical Activity St Statement H Hauora PO Position I- Initiatives negatives JPO Justified Position I+ Initiatives positives CR Critical IMP- Impact negatives EX Explained IMP+ Impact positives EID Explained in Detail OE Own Experiences RD Requires Development S Suggestions AS Assumptions Ref References
2009 Question???? • Brainstorm possibilities for the 2009 question.