This unit focuses on health benefits of exercise as opposed to the fitness benefits of exercise. • Health = the metabolic wellbeing as reflected in low risk levels of blood fats, blood pressure and body weight as well as general physical and mental wellbeing.
What is Physical Activity? • Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in expenditure of energy.
Domains of Physical Activity • Day to day activities where PA can should • Occupational activity: physical activity carried out in the course of an individual’s occupation • Leisure-time activity: physical activity done outside of work time • Household or gardening activity • Active transport activity: physical activity in getting from one place to another
Benefits of Physical Activity Participation • Social • Physical • Mental • Environmental • Economic • Health
Group Work Activity • In 5 groups you have 5 minutes to come up with as many factors that contribute to your assigned benefit. • At the end of 5 minutes send someone up to write your findings on the board and explain them to the rest of the class.
Physical Activity in Australia • Australians are equal fattest per capita, with Americans, in the world. • Costs the government/ Australia $400 million per year (mid 1990’s costings) • 8000 deaths per year • $1.3 billion per year in obesity related illnesses
Media Study • Read the article on page 6 of the text book. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RNwTmShzMw • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82kYQ7j7X2s
National Physical Activity Guidelines • From the ‘Australian Department of Health and Ageing. • Details the minimum levels of physical activity required for optimum health and body weight • Have 4 main guidelines • Have 3 sets of recommendations • http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-active-index.htm
Guidelines Step 1 • Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience Where any form of movement of the body is seen as an opportunity for improving health, not as a time-wasting inconvenience.
Guidelines Step 2 • Be active every day in as many ways as you can Make a habit of walking or cycling instead of using the car, or do things yourself instead of using labour-saving machines.
Step 3 • Put together at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, day. You can accumulate your 30 minutes (or more) throughout the day by combining a few shorter sessions of activity of around 10 to 15 minutes each.
Step 4 • If you can, also enjoy some regular, vigorous activity for extra health and fitness This step does not replace Steps 1-3. Rather it adds an extra level for those who are able, and wish, to achieve greater health and fitness benefits.
RECOMMENDATIONS • The dimensions of the guidelines: • F = Frequency • I = Intensity • D = Duration • T = Type
FREQUENCY • How many times per week is the activity undertaken
INTENSITY • At what intensity is the activity undertaken?
How to Measure Intensity • 4 methods of assessment 1 – TALK TEST • Low intensity – person can sing • Moderate intensity – can hold a conversation • Vigorous intensity – become too out of breath to hold a conversation
2 - TARGET HEART RATE Max HR = 220 - Age • Moderate intensity – target heart rate 50 – 70% of Max HR. • Vigorous intensity – target heart rate 70-85% of Max HR.
3. PERCIEVED EXERTION (Borg Rating Scale) How hard you think your body is working taking into account physical sensations. Eg – breathing rate, heart rate, sweating and muscle fatigue Scale from 6-20 6 = no exertion 20 = maximal exertion
4 – Metabolic Equivalent level (MET) Unit used to measure the amount of oxygen used by the body during physical activity. 1 = sitting quietly talking Moderate intensity = 3-6 METS Vigorous intensity = 6 + METS http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/tools/atus-met/met.php
Child and Youth Recommendations (up to 15 Years) • Frequency – every day • Intensity – moderate - vigorous • Duration – 60 minutes and up to several hours • Type – range including weight bearing, impact, • Note: should not spend more than 2 hours per day using electronic media
Adult Recommendations • Frequency – most, if not every day • Intensity - moderate • Duration – 30 mins (can be accumulated) • Type – range of activities
Overweight and Obese Recommendations • Frequency – every day • Intensity – low – moderate (dependant on condition) • Duration – 60 mins (across day) • Type – include aerobic activities and be inclusive of age.
ACTIVITY 2 • Create your own personal activity pyramid • In each section outline and draw pictures or add photos of you performing your day to day tasks. • Apply FIDT for each activity
Measuring Physical Activity • Physical activity levels can be measured using various methods, both subjective and objective. • Many things need to be considered before picking a method appropriate to the individual or group. • The data collected can then be used to gauge whether or not an individual or group of individuals adheres to the guidelines amongst other things.
To identify factors that influence physical activity levels (determinants) • To monitor how many people are achieving the National Physical Activity Guidelines • To identify population trends • To evaluate the effectiveness of large-scale interventions • To study the links between physical activity and health • To determine the amount of physical activity necessary to influence health • To detect change in an individual's health and/or behaviour • To determine the effect of any change in physical activity behaviour
Methods for Assessing Physical Activity • Subjective – Depend on our own perceptions of PA. Are used for measurements in populations. • Objective – Rely on data or recorded observations. Used for measurement in individuals.
SUBJECTIVE • Self report • Diaries • Logs • Questionnaires • Reports • Interviews • Recall • Short simple questionnaires (5-15 items) • Look at physical activity patterns over a period • Provides basic data for large populations
Objective • Heart Rate Monitor (telemetry) • Wear a heart rate watch or monitor • Provides data on intensity, frequency and duration of PA
Objective • Pedometry • Pedometer measures the number of steps taken. • Can estimate distance travelled • Can be used to estimate energy expenditure during PA • 10,000 steps per day is said to meet the NPAG standards
OBJECTIVE • Accelerometry • Electronic devise that determines the acceleration of the body in certain directions • Gives info on : • Frequency • Duration • Intensity • Minute-by-minute info (can upload to comp) • Detect movement patterns throughout day.
Objective • Observation • Collects data on activity : type, time, place and social setting. • Outside observers description of PA levels • BEACHES • SOFIT • SOPLAY • P16 of book.
Activity 3 • In pairs outline as many advantages and disadvantages as you can for each method of assessment. • Focus on: • Reliability of information • Cost • Whether they are invasive • Number of people each can cater for • Speed of data collection • Anything else you can think of
Case Study : Do They Meet the NPAG • Jane walks her dog at a brisk pace for about 20 minutes. She also weeds her garden weekly for about an hour. • Andrew waters his garden every second day for about five minutes. Each week he vacuums for about 30 mins and on the weekends he plays tennis with his kids for 45 mins. • Anthia walks to work everyday and notices her pedometer averages 8000 steps per day. After work she has a 10 minute swim to rejuvinate herself.
Yes or No? • Jane – Yes in one interpretation. She accumulates 200 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity each week. • Andrew – No: watering the garden would be considered low-intensity as it only involves holding a hose. Tennis is multiplied by two because it is vigrous but this only brings his total to 135-140 minutes. • Anthia- We cannot say for sure because the pedometer does not track her swimming. However, 8000 steps is 80% of her daily requirement, and 10 minutes is 33.3% of her daily requirement, so it could be argued that she does meet the guidelines.
Media • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPMaZXmXFB4 • http://www.veavideo.com/teachersNotes/MEASU1.PDF