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Promotion of Physical Activity. Short Quiz. To gain benefits of exercise, you must exercise everyday. Exercise can help improve depression. Girls will develop large, manly muscles if they lift weights. Lifting weights develops cardiorespiratory endurance.

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short quiz
Short Quiz
  • To gain benefits of exercise, you must exercise everyday.
  • Exercise can help improve depression.
  • Girls will develop large, manly muscles if they lift weights.
  • Lifting weights develops cardiorespiratory endurance.
  • The longer and harder you train, the better your health will be.
  • Anabolic steroids are illegal.
  • Teens need more sleep than their younger siblings or their parents.
short quiz answers
Short Quiz - Answers
  • To gain benefits of exercise, you must exercise everyday. (false)
  • Exercise can help improve depression. (true)
  • Girls will develop large, manly muscles if they lift weights. (false)
  • Lifting weights develops cardiorespiratory endurance. (false)
  • The longer and harder you train, the better your health will be. (false)
  • Anabolic steroids are illegal. (false – medical), (true – athletic)
  • Teens need more sleep than their younger siblings or their parents. (true)
promotion of physical activity1
Promotion of Physical Activity

Click Link

Physical Activity Gone Bad

what is physical activity
What is Physical Activity?
  • Physical Activity:

Any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include other daily activities such as household chores, yard work, walking the dog, etc. ...

  • Any Ideas?
physical activity benefits
Physical Activity Benefits
  • Physical
  • Academic
  • Mental
  • Social
physical benefits bone density
Physical Benefits – Bone Density
  • Increases Bone Strength(Bone Density).
  • Impact through exercise causes bones to increase in density to adapt for increased stress levels.
  • Increased muscle strength causes bones to increase in density to withstand the increased pull that the muscles have on the bones.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

  • Abnormal loss of Bone Mineral Density
physical benefits bone density1
Physical Benefits – Bone Density
  • Once you hit a certain age, bone density starts to decrease.
  • The loss in density cannot be avoided, but the rate can be slowed through exercise.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

      • Abnormal loss of Bone Mineral Density
physical benefits
Physical Benefits
  • Normal Bone Density vs. Osteoporosis Bone Density



physical benefits1
Physical Benefits
  • Heart/lungs are stronger = more blood/oxygen to circulate.
  • Cholesterol levels are healthy.
  • Strong & healthy blood vessels.
  • Good ratio of muscle mass to body fat.
  • Metabolism Increases
    • Process in which body gets energy from food.
    • Increase in muscle mass = more calories burned.
physical benefits2
Physical Benefits
  • Reduces chances of disease (more detail later).
  • More active and capable at any age.
  • Higher energy levels for longer periods.
  • Improves body posture.
  • Improves sleep.
  • Improves Body Mass Index (Next Slide)
physical benefits bmi
Physical Benefits - BMI
  • Body Mass Index (BMI):
        • The ratio of your weight to your height.
        • Better indicator of disease risk.


*Handout Copy of ADULT BMI Chart

calculating bmi
Calculating BMI
  • Multiply your weight in pounds by 703(e.g. for a person weighing 149 pounds, this would be 149 x 703 = 104,747).
  • Multiply your height in inches times itself(e.g. for a person 65 inches tall, this would be 65 x 65 = 4,225).
  • Divide the answer in Step 1 by the answer in Step 2(e.g. 104,747 / 4,225 = 24.8).
bmi teens vs adults
BMI – Teens vs. Adults
  • BMI calculation is the same for teens/adults.
  • BMI interpretation is different.
  • Healthy ranges cannot be given for teens because:
      • Teens are constantly changing.
      • Ranges change with each month of age for each gender.
      • Ranges change as height increases for each gender.
bmi teens
BMI – Teens
  • Instead of BMI Ranges, Teens us BMI Percentiles

Weight Status CategoryPercentile Range

Underweight Less than the 5th percentile

Healthy Weight 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile Overweight 85th to less than the 95th percentile

Obese Equal to or greater than the 95th percentile


bmi teens1
BMI - Teens



Teen Boys & Teen Girls

sedentary lifestyle
Sedentary Lifestyle


Athletes, Physically Fit Students

  • BMI Not As Accurate
  • High Muscle Densities  Increased Body Weight
  • Increased Body Weight  Skewed BMI #
teen bmi calculator internet
TEEN BMI Calculator - Internet


5 components of health related fitness
5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#1 - Muscular Strength: amount of force a muscle can exert at one time.

  • Examples of Muscle Strength:
  • One Rep Max (weightlifting).
  • Lifting a large box.
  • Jumping to block a spike (volleyball).
  • High Jump (track).
5 components of health related fitness1
5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#2 - Muscular endurance: ability for muscle to do physical tasks over a period of time.

  • Examples of Muscle Endurance:
  • Climbing multiple stairs.
  • Repeated reps in a set (weightlifting).
  • Repeated arm swing while weed eating.
  • Swimming.
5 components of health related fitness2
5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#3 – Cardiorespiratory Endurance: the ability of your heart, blood vessels, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to all of your body.

  • Examples of Cardiorespiratory Endurance:
  • Walking, Jogging, Running
  • Jumping Rope
  • Cycling
  • Step Test (next slide) – 3 Volunteers?
step test
Step Test
  • Bench 12” high
  • Step with right foot and then left
  • Fully extend legs
  • Step at a rate of 24/min
  • 3 Minutes then find pulse


85-95 beats = Excellent

96-105 beats = Good

106-125 beats = Fair

125 or more = Needs Improvement

5 components of health related fitness3
5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#4 - Flexibility: ability to move a body part through a full range of motion.

  • Examples of Flexibility:
  • Serving in Tennis.
  • Clipping Toe Nails.
  • Basketball Defense Stance.
  • Tying Shoes
5 components of health related fitness4
5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#5 – Body Composition: refers to the ratio of lean body tissue (muscle and bone) to body-fat tissue.

Body Composition can Be measured in More Than One Way




Water Tank

mental benefits
Mental Benefits
  • Intellectually more productive
  • More Alert
  • Relief from stress
  • Depression
  • Sense of pride/accomplishments
  • Positive self-esteem (look/feel better)
social benefits
Social Benefits
  • Reduces stress levels that could interfere with relationships
  • Self-confidence helps thrive in social situations
  • Opportunities to interact/cooperate with others
academic benefits
Academic Benefits
  • Physical Activity = High Brain Function
  • Physical Activity = Higher Academic Performance
  • Research agrees!
academic benefits1
Academic Benefits

California Department of Education

  • Researched correlation between fitness scores and academic scores (884,715 students).
  • Looked at aerobic capacity, BMI, abdominal strength, trunk strength, upper body strength and overall flexibility.
  • Students labeled “FIT,” scored 2x higher on academic tests than students labeled “unfit.”
academic benefits2
Academic Benefits

University of Illinois

  • Researched 259 third and fifth grade students.
  • Used same fitness tests.
  • Duplicated results (2x higher performance on academic tests).
  • Even higher performance of students scoring higher in BMI and aerobic capacity tests.
  • Took research even further (next slide).
academic benefits3
Academic Benefits

University of Illinois

  • Isolated two groups, “Fit” and “Unfit.”
  • Brain activity measured by EKG.
  • Both groups given same tests that measured attention, working memory and processing speed.
  • “Fit” groups showed more brain activity in the prefrontal cortex (responsible for executive function and control over other brain processes).
academic benefits4
Academic Benefits

“The exercise itself doesn't make you smarter, but it puts the brain of the learners in the optimal position for them to learn.”

- John Ratey, Harvard Professor

academic benefits5
Academic Benefits
  • Benefits also linked to other benefits from physical activity:
  • Reduced Stress
  • Higher Energy Levels
  • More Alert
  • Self-confident
academic benefits6
Academic Benefits
  • United States Standardized Tests Scores Have Continually Declined.
  • United States obesity rates have dramatically increased (overweight or obese children rates have tripled since 1980).
  • Coincidence?
sedentary lifestyle1
Sedentary Lifestyle

Sedentary Lifestyle: A way of life that requires little movement and exercise.

sedentary lifestyle2
Sedentary Lifestyle

Approaches to Everyday Activities


Taking car to store Walking to store

Using a golf cart Walking with clubs

Taking the elevator Taking the stairs

Playing video games Playing tennis


sedentary lifestyle3
Sedentary Lifestyle

Metabolism: process in which body gets energy from food.

sedentary lifestyle4
Sedentary Lifestyle

Basal Metabolic Rate(resting): minimum rate of energy required to maintain the basic life processes in body.

Exercise Metabolic Rate = Basal + Daily Activity

Think of it this way (next slide)…


GAS = Energy

Car = Human Body

Engine = Metabolism

Car Parked  Idle Engine  Very little Gas (BASAL)

Drive Around  Engine Revs Up  More Gas Needed (ACTIVITY)

sedentary lifestyle5
Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Sedentary Lifestyle = Basal Metabolism
  • Problem?
  • Loss of Bone Density
  • Loss of Muscle Mass
  • More Energy Consumed Than Needed, Stored as Fat

Basal Metabolism + Overeating = Weight Gain (fat)

sedentary lifestyle vs chronic disease
Sedentary Lifestyle vs. Chronic Disease

Sedentary Lifestyle Leads to Several Chronic Diseases (discussed during the disease unit).

  • Brief Overview of Some Diseases:
  • - Heart Disease
      • Diabetes
      • Stroke
      • Cancer
      • High Cholesterol, Blood Pressure
      • Lung Disease
      • Arthritis
      • Osteoporosis
      • Obesity
types of physical activity
Types of Physical Activity

Aerobic: activity in which oxygen is continuously taken in for energy.


types of physical activity1
Types of Physical Activity

Anaerobic:Intense burst of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen.


variations of anaerobic
Variations of Anaerobic:
  • Isometric: little or no movement.
  • Isotonic: muscle contraction with repeated movement.
  • Isokenitic:variable resistance to a movement, so that no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed.
planning your fitness program
Planning Your Fitness Program


TWO Places To Find Pulse

  • Neck
  • Wrist

Do not use thumb!

finding beats per minute
Finding Beats Per Minute

1 Minute = 60 Seconds

Counting Pulse Rate:

Count for 6 Seconds = Multiply By 10

Count for 10 Seconds = Multiply By 6

Or……. Count For The Whole Minute 

target heart rate zone
Target Heart Rate Zone

Target Heart Rate Zone:Range in which your heart rate should be during exercise for maximum cardiorespiratory endurance.

  • 1. Find Resting Heart Rate (RHR)
  • 2. Subtract Age From 220 (Maximum Heart Rate - HR)
  • 3. Subtract Resting RHR from MHR
  • 4. Multiply # From Step 3 by 85% and then by 60% (two #’s)
  • 5. Add RHR to result when multiplied by 85% (Step 4)
  • 6. Add RHR to result when you multiplied by 60% (Step 4)
target heart rate zone1
Target Heart Rate Zone

Hand Out Work Sheets

  • Each step gives an example of how to calculate through each step.
  • Example is for a 24 year old with a resting heart rate of 61 beats per minute.
  • Work through this work sheet at home!


planning your fitness program1
Planning Your Fitness Program

Before you plan a program, consider the following:

  • Do you have health concerns, such as diabetes or asthma?
  • Are you healthy enough to start a program?
  • What types of activities do you enjoy?
  • How much will your planned activities cost?
planning your fitness program2
Planning Your Fitness Program
  • Set Fitness Goals
  • SMART Method
  • Goals Should Be Based On The 5 Components of Physical Fitness.
        • Muscular Strength
        • Muscular Endurance
        • Cardio Respiratory Endurance
        • Flexibility
        • Body Composition
physical activity recommendations
Physical Activity Recommendations

Children and adolescents should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity daily.

Aerobic:Most of the 60 or more minutes a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days a week.

Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents:

physical activity recommendations1
Physical Activity Recommendations

Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.

Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.

planning your fitness program3
Planning Your Fitness Program

FITTPrinciple: Used to help determine the physical activity you plan to take part in.

Frequency: how often?

Intensity: how hard?

Type: what kind?

Time: how long?


more concepts to consider
More Concepts to Consider

Warm-up:activities that prepare the muscles for the work that is to come.

Cool Down:activities that aid muscles in purging themselves of waste products which have accumulated during exercise

Overload:increasing workload, working harder than norm

Progression:gradual increase in workload over time

Specificity:particular exercises improves particular areas of fitness

Individuality: everyone responds to training differently

planning your fitness program4
Planning Your Fitness Program


promotion of physical activity2
Promotion of Physical Activity

Going Deeper:

Understanding Energy Systems

energy systems human body
Energy Systems – Human Body
  • If the body does not create energy, we would not live.
  • We consume food for energy, but it is not that simple.
  • Complex chemical systems.
  • 3 Total Energy Systems.
energy systems human body1
Energy Systems – Human Body


- Phosphogen System (ATP-PC) 8-10 Seconds

- Glycogen-Lactic Acid System Up to 90 Seconds


- Adenosine Phosphate Group Unlimited

the basics atp adp
The Basics: ATP & ADP

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) WATCH VIDEO

      • Tri = 3
      • 3 Phosphates Held Together by High Energy Bonds
      • Highest Energy Bond = Between 2nd & 3rd Phosphate
  • Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
      • Di = 2
      • 2 Phosphates Held Together
      • 1 Phosphate Released

NOTE: Adenosine Monophosphate (AMD)

anaerobic phosphogen
Anaerobic - Phosphogen
  • 1st System Used (8-10 seconds)
  • Muscles Have Very Few ATP Floating Around (3 seconds worth)
  • Need to Make More ATP to Continue Exercise
  • Creatine Phosphate In Muscles Help
anaerobic phosphogen1
Anaerobic - Phosphogen
  • Phosphate Taken from Creatine Phosphate (Creatine Kinase)
  • Phosphate Added to ADP
  • ADP + Phosphate = ATP
  • Repeats Until ATP & Creatine Phosphate Levels are too Low
  • Process Repeated for 8-10 Seconds, Known As Phosphogen System or ATP-PC System (Adenosine Triphosphate – Phosphate Creatine)
anaerobic glycogen lactic acid system
Anaerobic – Glycogen/Lactic Acid System
  • 2nd System Used (Up to 90 Seconds)
  • Muscles Have Big Reserves of Glycogen
  • Glycogen: Chain of Glucose Molecules
  • Glycogen  Split Into Glucose
anaerobic glycogen lactic acid system1
Anaerobic – Glycogen/Lactic Acid System
  • Glucose  2Pyruvic Acid
  • Phosphates Released from Breakdown to Pyruvic Acid Bonds to ADP to create new ATP.
  • Pyruvic AcidContinues to Breakdown into Lactic
  • Complete Process Involves Several Steps


aerobic energy oxidative system
Aerobic Energy (Oxidative System)

Three Parts To Aerobic Energy

  • Glycolysis
  • The Krebs Cycle
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
oxidative system glycolysis
Oxidative System - Glycolysis
  • The Exact Process as the glycogen-lactic acid system (one little difference).
  • Glycogen  Glucose  Phosphates & Pyruvic Acid
  • DIFFERENCE: Pyruvic Acid  actyl coenzyme A (instead of lactic acid)
  • FINAL RESULT:2 ATP & Actyl Coenzyme A (used in the next stage)
oxidative system krebs cycle
Oxidative System – Krebs Cycle
  • Several Chemical Reactions
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A Carbon Dioxide, & Hydrogen
  • Result: 2 ATPS
  • PROBLEM: levels of hydrogen are too acidic for cells
  • SOLUTION: hydrogen bonds with NAD & FAD (enzymes) and transported to the electron transport chain.
oxidative system electron transport chain
Oxidative System – Electron Transport Chain
  • Hydrogen & NAD, FAD  COMBINES WITH OXYGEN (forms water, preventing acid)
  • RESULT: 34 ATP


TOTAL ATP (from oxidative system)

2 ATP (Glycolysis) + 2 ATP (Krebs Cycle) +34 ATP (Electron Transport Chain) = 38 ATP Total


  • All the energy systems use glucose to form ATP.
  • Glucose is a carbohydrate (carb).
  • Is it possible to burn fat? If so, how do you burn fat through exercise?
  • Yes, you can burn fat!
  • System #1 - Phosphogen System:NO
  • System #2 - Glycogen-Lactic Acid System:NO
  • System #3 –Oxidative System
        • Glycolysis: NO
        • Krebs Cycle: YES
        • Electron Transport Chain: YES
burning fat
Burning Fat
  • Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
  • Fat must be broken down: Lipolysis
  • Fat  Glycerol & Fatty Acids
  • Glycerol & Fatty Acids  Acetyl Coenzyme A

(Beta Oxidation)

  • Same Path the Rest of the Way!
fat metabolism
Fat Metabolism
  • The Breakdown of Fat = more Acetyl Coenzyme A than the breakdown of Carbs.


1. Fat contains more carbon than Carbs (requires more oxygen).

2. In high intense exercise, oxygen supply cells quick enough. Thus, carbs must be used for energy.

3. If carbs get low enough or run out, you will not be able to maintain high intensity levels.