Individual approaches to physical activity promotion
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INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION. # 4. What you need to know. Meaning of self-efficacy Individual approaches to promoting physical activity Theoretical models (Stages of Change) Print and web-based media Counselling. Self-Efficacy. Feelings of self-value or self-worth

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What you need to know
What you need to know

  • Meaning of self-efficacy

  • Individual approaches to promoting physical activity

    • Theoretical models (Stages of Change)

    • Print and web-based media

    • Counselling

Self efficacy

  • Feelings of self-value or self-worth

  • Eg: C__________ in your ability to engage in healthy behaviours across a range of challenging situations

  • Self-efficacy increases as you move through the stages of change

  • Active people generally = _______ self-efficacy

Promoting physical activity
Promoting Physical Activity

  • Two main categories of physical activity promotion

    • Individual approaches

      • Strategies to achieve individual ___________ change

      • Most research has focused on changing individual behaviours

      • Eg: theoretical models of individual behaviour change, print and web-based approaches, counselling

    • Population approaches

      • Strategies to achieve changes in _____ populations

      • Came about due to Ottawa Charter in 1986

        • Important to target large groups of people for health benefits

      • Eg: policy, environmental, mass media

Individual v population approaches


Theoretical models (eg: Stages of Change)

Print and web-based media



Policy strategies

Environmental strategies

Mass media

Individual v. Population Approaches

Let’s focus on individual approaches to physical activity promotion…

Individual approaches to physical activity promotion1
Individual Approaches to Physical Activity Promotion

  • Many health professionals, health educators, medical practitioners and psychologists focus on changing individuals’ behaviours

    • Eg:

  • Three main approaches

    • Stages of Change theory

    • Print and web-based media

    • Counselling

Stages of change model

Also known as

transtheoretical model

Stages of Change Model

  • Describes fundamental processes that an individual goes through to ________ their health behaviours

  • Provides a framework that classifies motivational readiness for behaviour change

  • Six stages

    • Precontemplation

    • Contemplation

    • Preparation

    • Action

    • Maintenance

    • Termination

Stage 1 precontemplation not ready for change
Stage 1: PrecontemplationNot ready for change!

  • Not considering __________ their __________

  • Have no intention of being more active within the next _____ months

  • Most difficult group

  • Possible Signs

    • Not aware their lack of activity is a ________

    • _______ information and opportunities that could help them start thinking about being more active

    • Family and friends are the people to point out lack of activity and pressure them to start

Stage 2 contemplation thinking about change
Stage 2: ContemplationThinking about change

  • Individuals ______________ that they need to become more active

  • Physical activity is considered

  • Weigh-up pros and cons

    • Eg:

  • Intention is to become active, but many people remain in this stage for long periods of time

Stage 3 preparation preparing for action
Stage 3: PreparationPreparing for action

  • People appear to be _______ and __________ for activity

  • A plan is often developed

  • Possible signs

    • Writing down goals

    • Small amounts of activity, but may not be meeting NPAG

      • Eg: 2 physical activity sessions per week

Stage 4 action carrying out the plan
Stage 4: ActionCarrying out the plan

  • Implementing the _______

  • Large amount of effort, time and energy required

  • Attempting to follow NPAG

  • Important to focus on goals

  • Relapse is common

Stage 5 maintenance maintaining a good thing
Stage 5: MaintenanceMaintaining a good thing!

  • Person is __________ active as part of their lifestyle

  • Has been meeting NPAG for at least _____ months

  • Continually strives to overcome barriers to avoid moving back to other stages

  • Setting new _______ is important

Stage 6 termination maintaining regular activity for more than 5 years
Stage 6: TerminationMaintaining regular activity for more than 5 years

  • Person has been regularly active for over _____ years

  • It is a part of their everyday lifestyle

  • Setting new goals and rewarding yourself are important

  • Permanent behaviour change has occurred

  • Very few people reach this stage


  • Moving back to another stage is common problem

  • Relapse is not failure and occurs most often between stage 2 and 4

  • People that reach maintenance generally only relapse to the preparation stage

Print and web based media
Print and Web-Based Media

  • Print materials

    • Booklets, brochures, handouts

  • Available from:

    • Community-based recreational centres

    • Health care providers

    • Schools and workplaces

  • Advantages:

  • Disadvantages:

  • Web-based media

    • Internet, email

  • Advantages:

  • Disadvantages:

  • Counselling

    • Health professional counselling

      • Doctors, personal trainers, physiotherapist, etc

    • Very effective

      • Written advice, activity calendars, exercises, DVDs

    • Advantages:

    • Disadvantages:

  • Telephone counselling and automated telephone-delivered advice

    • Follow-up from visit or on its own

    • Recorded messages and use of key pad to enter information

    • Advantages:

    • Disadvantages:

  • Strategies used in counselling using the stages of change model
    Strategies used in Counselling(using the Stages of Change model)

    • Nelson notes (p.43-49)

    • Coursework 2.1