Biomes • A terrestrial ecosystem determined by: • A. climate • B. vegetation and • C. organisms adapted to the environment
Wetland • Ecosystem intermediate between an aquatic and a terrestrial one • Soil is saturated with water permanently or periodically
Estuary • is where freshwater stream or river emerge with the ocean
familiar examples of estuaries • San Francisco Bay • Puget Sound • Chesapeake Bay • Boston Harbor • Tampa Bay • Mississippi Delta
Productive • Estuaries provide habitat for more than 75% of America's commercial fish catch, and for 80-90% of the recreational fish catch
Louisiana Coastal Issues • Louisiana's combined land loss/subsidence and loss of wetlands has made them much more vulnerable to hurricanes than ever before
Problems • RADIO MESSAGE: and Handout • Restoring the Mississippi, Part 1: Reducing Dead Zones in Louisiana's Gulf Coast
Levees Create Problems • Levees have cut off the normal overflow of sediment from the Mississippi River which would otherwise gradually rebuild the coast.
Rocky Intertidal • Big Sur, California
Tundra • Rainfall less than 10 inches (low) • Alpine Tundra at high elevation.
Tundra: Cold WindTemperature: -40°C to 18°C • Arctic Tundra is circumpolar (scanty Antarctic).
Tundra Cotton grass • Treeless • low (less than 1 m) vegetation • water frozen (Permafrost) • Typical plants: sedges, lichens, mosses, grasses, and dwarf woody plants.
Tundra • Typical animals: snowy owls, musk ox, reindeer, polar bears, and migrant birds Musk ox
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Rainfall 60-150cm/30-60 inches • Medium • Temperature: -10°C to 25°C • hot summers, cold winters
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Tall trees creating deep shade.
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Typical plants include maples, oaks, elms, spruce
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Typical animals include deer and squirrels.
Taiga • Cold winters with deep snow, but longer growing season than tundra. • TEMPERATURE: -30oC to 20oC • Periodic fires common.
Taiga • Rainfall 8-50 cm/12-33 inches • Medium
Taiga • PLANTS: dense evergreen needle-leafed forest, white spruce, black spruce, and jack pine.
Taiga • Typical animals: moose, black bears, wolves, and migrant birds.
Intense solar radiation High winds Large diurnal temperature fluctuations Taiga
Grasslands • Rainfall:25-75cm/ 10-30 inches Medium • EXAMPLES: • Savannas or veldt (Africa) • Steppes (Eurasia) • Pampas (S. America) • Prairies (N. America)
Cold or warm winters with growing seasons with moisture too dry for trees. Grasslands
Grasslands (Steppe) • Treeless vegetation less than 1 m high.
Savanna • Cheetahs are well-adapted predators who prey on grazing animals
Prairie • Typical plants include grasses and members of the sunflower family. • FescuePrairie,Canada • Sunflowers, ND
Typical animals: large grazing ungulates such as horses, buffalo, and rhinoceros. Veldt Africa
Pampas • Treeless plains of Argentina
CHAPARRAL • Typical plants: oaks, manzanita, chamise low pines, and junipers.
CHAPPARAL(a little bit found in all continents) “”Wild West". Hot and dry
CHAPARRAL • sparse • Low trees • shrubs
sparse drought-resistant vegetation, typically spiny and with tiny leaves and photosynthetic bark. DESERT
DESERT • Rainfall less than 25cm/10 inches • Low • Evaporation High • Temperature: 10oC to 29oC in hot deserts
Polar Desert Turkestan • Polar Desert: -2oC to 26oC • Antarctica • Pantagonia • Turkestan • Gobi • Namib Emperor Penguins Antarctica
Hot Desert • Typical plants include cacti, acacias and short-lived annuals. Prickly pear