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Chapter 3. Love in Relationships. Chapter Outline. Descriptions of Love Love in Social and Historical Context Theories on the Origins of Love How Love Develops in a New Relationship Love as a Context for Problems Jealousy in Relationships. True or False?.

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Chapter 3


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    1. Chapter 3 Love in Relationships

    2. Chapter Outline • Descriptions of Love • Love in Social and Historical Context • Theories on the Origins of Love • How Love Develops in a New Relationship • Love as a Context for Problems • Jealousy in Relationships

    3. True or False? • College students report that they are more likely to make relationship decisions with their heart than their head.

    4. Answer: True • College students report that they are more likely to make relationship decisions with their heart than their head.

    5. True or False? • Undergraduate women are more likely than men to believe that “jealousy shows love.”

    6. Answer: False • Women were significantly more likely than men to disagree or to strongly disagree that “jealousy shows how much your partner loves you”: 63.2% of the women, in contrast to 42.6% of the men, disagreed with the statement.

    7. True or False? • Heavy women who lose weight are more likely to become involved in a romantic relationship.

    8. Answer: True • Heavy women who lose weight are more likely to become involved in a romantic relationship.

    9. Romantic vs. Realistic Love • Romantic Love: • Characterized by such beliefs as love at first sight, there is only one true love, and love conquers all. • Symptoms of romantic love include drastic mood swings, palpitations of the heart, and intrusive thoughts about the partner.

    10. Romantic vs. Realistic Love • Realistic Love: • Also known as conjugal love. • Conjugal (married) love is less emotional, passionate, and exciting than romantic love and is characterized by companionship, calmness, comfort, and security.

    11. Triangular View of Love • Sternberg’s “triangular” view of love consists of three basic elements: • Intimacy • Passion • Commitment • The presence or absence of these provides a description of types of love.

    12. Triangular Theory of Love

    13. Descriptions of Love • Nonlove: • Absence of intimacy, passion, and commitment • Two strangers looking at each other from afar have a nonlove. • Liking: • Intimacy without passion or commitment • A new friendship may be described in these terms of the partners liking each other.

    14. Descriptions of Love • Infatuation • Passion without intimacy or commitment • Two persons flirting with each other in a bar may be infatuated with each other. • Romantic love • Intimacy and passion without commitment • Love at first sight reflects this type of love.

    15. Descriptions of Love • Companionate love • Intimacy and commitment without passion • A couple who have been married for fifty years are said to have a companionate love. • Fatuous love • Passion and commitment without intimacy • A couple who are passionately about each other and talk of the future but do not have an intimate connection with each other.

    16. Descriptions of Love • Empty love • Commitment without passion or intimacy • A couple who stay together for social and legal reasons but who have no spark or sharing between them. • Consummate love • Combination of intimacy, passion, and commitment • Sternberg’s view of the ultimate, all-consuming love.

    17. Conjugal Love • Pg. 73 • This couple reflects conjugal love. • They are happily married, have reared two children, and enjoy their lives together.

    18. Question • Steinberg's triangular view of love consists of three basic elements, which are • intercourse, passion, and commitment. • intimacy, friendship, and commitment. • intimacy, passion, and commitment. • intimacy, compassion, and commitment.

    19. Answer: C • Steinberg's triangular view of love consists of three basic elements, which are intimacy, passion, and commitment.

    20. Love Styles • Ludus • Views love as a game, refuses to become dependent, and does not encourage another’s intimacy. • Pragma • The love of the pragmatic, who is logical and rational. • Eros • A love style of passion and romance.

    21. Love Styles • Mania • The person with mania love style feels intense emotion and sexual passion but is out of control. • Storge • A calm, soothing, nonsexual love devoid of intense passion. • Agape • A love style that is selfless and giving.

    22. Ludite Style of Love • The main character in the movie Alfie was a ludic lover, juggling different women and committing to none of them. • Pg. 77

    23. Eros Style of Love • This university couple reflects the eros style of love, which is one of passion and romance. • Pg. 78

    24. Question • Which type of love is also known as conjugal love? • ludic love • agape love • realistic love • passive love

    25. Answer: C • Realistic love is also known as conjugal love.

    26. Social Control of Love • Examples: • Over 95% of people marry someone of their own racial background. • Individuals attracted to someone of the same sex quickly feel the social and cultural disapproval of this attraction.

    27. Buddhist Conception of Love • The Buddhists conceived of two types of love: • “unfortunate” kind of love (self-love) • A “good” kind of love (creative spiritual attainment).

    28. Greek and Hebrew Conceptions of Love • Phileo • Based on friendship, can exist between family members, friends, and lovers. • Agape • Based on a concern for the well-being of others. Spiritual, not sexual, in nature. • Eros • Sexual love.

    29. Question • Which type of love is based on friendship and can exist between or among family, friends, and lovers? • agape • eros • phileo • "good" love

    30. Answer: C • Phileo is based on friendship and can exist between or among family, friends, and lovers.

    31. Love in Medieval Europe • Love in the 1100s was a concept influenced by economic, political, and family structure. • Marriages of the sons and daughters of the aristocracy were arranged with the heirs of other states with whom an alliance was sought.

    32. Question • Which of the following introduced three concepts of love: phileo, agape and eros? • Greeks • Romans • Christians • Buddhists

    33. Answer: A • The Greeks introduced three concepts of love: phileo, agape and eros.

    34. Theories on the Origins of Love • Evolutionary Theory • Love has an evolutionary purpose and creates a bond between parents when their offspring are dependent infants. • Learning Theory • Emphasizes that love feelings develop in response to certain behaviors occurring in certain contexts.

    35. Theories on the Origins of Love • Sociological Theory • Uses the wheel model to describe how love develops. The stages of love include rapport, self revelation, mutual dependency, and personality need fulfillment. • Psychosexual Theory • Love results from blocked biological sexual desires.

    36. Theories on the Origins of Love • Biochemical Theory • Suggests that there may be a biochemical basis for love feelings. • Attachment Theory • Emphasizes that a primary motivation in life is to be connected with other people.

    37. Love Theories and Criticisms

    38. Love Theories and Criticisms

    39. Love Theories and Criticisms

    40. Question • Which theory emphasizes that love feelings develop in response to certain behaviors occurring within certain contexts? • evolutionary theory • attachment theory • learning theory • ontological theory

    41. Answer: C • Learning theory emphasizes that love feelings develop in response to certain behaviors occurring within certain contexts.

    42. Question • Which theory states that love arises from a lack of wholeness in our being? • psychosexual theory • learning theory • evolutionary theory • ontological theory

    43. Answer: D • Ontological theory states that love arises from a lack of wholeness in our being.

    44. How Love Develops in a New Relationship • Society promotes love through popular music, movies, television, and novels. • Probability of being in a relationship is influenced by the cultural ideal of physical appearance. • Self-esteem and self-disclosure are associated with the development of healthy love relationships. • The individual must be physiologically aroused.

    45. Benefits of Self-Esteem • It allows one to be open and honest about both strengths and weaknesses. • It allows one to feel generally equal to others. • It allows one to take responsibility for one’s own feelings, ideas, mistakes, and failings. • It allows for the acceptance of strengths and weaknesses in one’s self and others.

    46. Benefits of Self-Esteem • It allows one to validate one’s self and not to expect the partner to do this. • It permits one to feel empathy • It allows separateness and interdependence, as opposed to fusion and dependence.

    47. Love as a Context for Problems • Sometimes the development of one love relationship is at the expense of another. • Some people report being in love with two people at the same time. • Some are in love with someone who is emotionally or physically abusive.

    48. Love as a Context for Problems • Context for Risky/Dangerous/Questionable Choices • Individuals are aware that love may cause problems. • Some research suggests that individuals in love make risky/dangerous/questionable decisions.

    49. Love as a Context for Problems • Stalking • A repeated malicious pursuit that threatens the safety of the victim. • It may involve following a victim; threats of physical harm to the victim, one’s self, or another person; or restricting the behavior of the victim, including kidnapping or home invasion.

    50. External Causes of Jealousy • External factors refer to behaviors the partner engages in that are interpreted as: • Emotional and/or sexual interest in someone (or something) else. • A lack of emotional and/or sexual interest in the primary partner.