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Research Methods. Writing up your project 06.12.12. Research Projects. Background Literature Aims and Hypothesis Methods: Study Design Data collection approach Sample Size and Power Reliability and Validity Analysis strategy. Research Project. Results Discussion and Conclusion

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research projects
Research Projects
  • Background Literature
  • Aims and Hypothesis
  • Methods:
    • Study Design
    • Data collection approach
    • Sample Size and Power
    • Reliability and Validity
    • Analysis strategy
research project
Research Project
  • Results
  • Discussion and Conclusion
  • Limitations
  • Acknowledgements
  • Disseminating your findings and getting published
plan for the day
Plan for the day
  • Results presentation and writing up
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Getting published
  • Summary of your findings
  • Consistent with your research method
  • Use appropriate display of information and analysis of data
  • Relevant statistical techniques where appropriate
results how to present
RESULTS: How to present?
  • How will you display your findings?

What are the options?


Aim – to present your information in a way that can be easily understood, yet includes relevant detail

data analysis
Data analysis
  • Data cleaning: analyse mistakes/ illegible responses/ inconsistent results/ implausible numbers
    • Clarify which are accurate respondants
    • May need to discard some data or go back to check data
data analysis1
Data analysis
  • Missing data- identify if any missing data? Errors or omission
data analysis2
Data analysis


  • To group variables in a form in which you wish to analyse them

e.g. from continuous data to grouped sets

Eg age to age groups

  • Should spot-check for errors
  • Repeated by independent person – compare and check results
data analysis browsing data
Data analysis: Browsing data
  • Central tendancy or characteristic of data
    • Mean- arithmetic average
    • Median- middle value
    • Mode- most common
browsing data
Browsing Data

Variation in the data

  • Range of values: Min – Max
  • Standard Deviation – the average distance of individual observation from the group mean
data analysis3
Data analysis

Differences within the data

Difference between means (t-test)

Differences between proportion (chi-squared)

data analysis4
Data analysis
  • Relationships within the data

Relationship between 1 variable and another using statistical method

    • Correlation
    • Regression
data analysis5
Data analysis
  • Data transformations
  • Transform variables:
    • Re-code
    • Counts
    • Scaling
    • Conditional transformations (transform 1 variable depending on another)
types of data analysis
Types of data analysis
  • Univariate analysis: single variables
  • Time series analysis- measuring changes over time
  • Bivariate analysis: pairs of data
  • Multivariate analysis: >2 variables
  • Cost effectiveness analysis
  • Use effectiveness analysis
comparing variables
Comparing variables
  • Comparing variables – distribution between 2/+ groups
    • Testing difference between means (t-test)
    • Comparing proportions: (Chi Squared)
    • Comparing % in same sample at 2 different points of time (McNemar test)
    • Comparing > 2 means (ANOVA- analysis of variance)
results section
Results Section

Describe basic data – first things first!

  • Text
  • Table
  • Graph
  • Use of number, n and %
  • Decimal points: general to 2 decimal 1.25

E.g. Number of patients included, excluded

Demographic data

  • Describing data
    • Range
    • Mean/Mode/Median
    • Any basic trends
    • Confidence Intervals and p-values

Progress into more detailed statistical analysis as appropriate


Ensure use of tables/ graphs/charts is appropriate and to scale

Title, label and provide a key if needed

  • Pie charts- percentages
  • Bar charts- comparison of different data
  • Line graphs- change over time
  • Histograms- continuous charted data
results tables
Results: tables
  • Should be concise
  • Make sure it makes sense to read on its own
  • May need more than one table if it is becoming large and unwieldy
  • If complex data, a graph may be better
presenting results
Presenting results
  • Takes more thought and practice than you might imagine

Exercise: Plan how you would present the findings of your research – what graphs, tables etc. would you use and why?

Draft some examples – dummy tables

conclusion dicussion
Conclusion & Dicussion
  • Summarise your findings – key points
  • Relate findings back to the literature base and your own aims and objectives
  • Discuss benefits of your study
  • Discuss limitations
getting published
Getting published!
  • A significant achievement – personally, for cv and career
  • But cannot be taken for granted
  • Consider the requirements of journals and their reviewers
preparing a publication
Preparing a publication
  • Why do you want it to be published?
  • What does your research have to contribute to the field?
  • Is it timely, relevant and of interest?
  • Consider WHO is audience?
  • WHICH JOURNAL to publish in?
preparing a publication1
Preparing a publication
  • Consider which Journal might be willing to publish your research
    • Area of interest
    • Audience
    • Type of research/ article
    • Impact factor
journal style
Journal Style
  • Look at the Journal Guidance for Authors- what is the style required for writing up
    • Spacing
    • Font
    • Margin Size
    • Numbering
    • Headings
    • Number and style of tables, graphs etc.
journal style1
Journal Style
  • Abstract style
  • Authorship
  • Conflicts of interest
  • Word Count, Which type of paper your research meets – case report/ review/ original research/ commentary etc..
journal style2
Journal Style
  • Referencing
    • Number of references
    • Reference style – Vancouver, Harvard etc.
writing up for publication
Writing up for publication
  • What is key finding?

Structure article in way that will take the reader with you and engage them with the relevance of your findings

writing up for publication1
Writing up for publication

Write a draft



Revise again!

Don’t get too disheartened..

Get feedback from others..

writing up for publication2
Writing up for publication
  • Submit article – online log-in often
  • May need to suggest reviewers
  • Ensure you get submission deadline and provide correct contact details
  • Agree who is lead author on paper and corresponding author
  • Wait for feedback… and keep waiting..

Until hopefully you get a positive result!!

barriers to research


  • Previous experiences (good/bad)
  • Knowledge, skills and confidence
  • Own beliefs about research value
  • Prioritisation of time for research

In 5 minutes jot down your positive and negative internal influences on your research

barriers to research1


  • Other commitments- practical/ work/ personal
  • Technology issues
  • Research supervision
  • Support from others

Spend 5 minutes identifying external barriers to your research

overcoming barriers
Overcoming Barriers

Spend 5-10 minutes identifying an action plan for your research protocol- think about targets being:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Timely