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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Tudors and Parliament The Stuarts and Parliament The English Civil War The Monarchy Returns. Monarchy in England. Monarchy in England. Main Idea
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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Tudors and Parliament The Stuarts and Parliament The English Civil War The Monarchy Returns Monarchy in England
Monarchy in England Main Idea In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarchy was limited by Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful. • Reading Focus • How did the Tudors work with Parliament? • What led the first two Stuart kings to clash with Parliament? • What were the causes and results of the English Civil War? • What happened when monarchy returned to England?
Henry and Parliament Henry and Elizabeth • Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife • Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England • In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England • Two prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continent • In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy • Both father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals The Tudors and Parliament
Edward, Mary, Elizabeth • After Henry’s death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queen • Often called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again • 1558, Mary died; Elizabeth crowned queen • Returned England to Anglican Church with Parliament’s help • Tension • Tension developed between Parliament, queen • Parliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throne • Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom • Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed
Major reason for Elizabeth’s good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishment Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign Elizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions Earl of Essex rebelled against authority Asked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?” Essex tried, executed as a traitor Not the last to question Elizabeth’s authority Elizabeth in Charge
Recall What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do? Answer(s): to pass laws to help the monarch achieve desired results
James I Clashes with Parliament Puritan Reform • James I, first of Stuart dynasty to rule in England • View of absolute monarchy caused conflict with Parliament • Previous wars, own spending left him low on funds • From Scotland, considered outsider • James rarely got all money he wanted from Parliament • Puritans wanted reform of Church of England • Seen as threat to James’s power; church leadership supported him • Refused to pass Puritans’ requests for reform • Did agree to publication of King James Bible The Stuarts and Parliament • The Tudors’ success with Parliament not repeated • Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth
Issues of Money Petition of Right • Popular at first, but married Catholic princess • Involved England in military adventures overseas • 1628, summoned Parliament to request money • Parliament refused until Charles signed Petition of Right • Petition of Right a direct challenge to absolute monarchy • Placed limits on king’s power • Could not levy taxes without Parliamentary approval • Parliament later refused to give Charles money again • He taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him money • Parliament was furious • Charles dismissed Parliament • 1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament again Charles I Defies Parliament When James I died in 1625, his younger son was crowned king as Charles I.
Find the Main Idea Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament? Answer(s): Both wanted to rule as absolute monarchs.
The English Civil War • Conflict Continued • Conflict continued between king who believed in absolute monarchy, Parliament that saw itself independent • Conflict led to war, king’s death • Parliament Reconvened • 1640, Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money • “Long Parliament” did not disband for several years • Limited King’s Powers • Having been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit king’s powers • Demanded Parliament be called at least every three years • Grudging Acceptance • Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament • Charles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn
War with Parliament • Strategy • Charles’ moment came when radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church • King, whose power connected to power of church, was outraged • Charles Tries Power Grab • Charles decided to arrest Puritan leaders for treason • Led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped • Charles had tipped hand on intentions to take back power • Civil War Begins • Some members of Parliament decided to rise up against king • Charles I called for support of English people • 1642, English Civil War began
Roundhead Forces King Surrenders • Parliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forces • Rose to leadership as army general • 1644, led victory in which 4,000 of king’s soldiers died • Cromwell soon became commander of Parliament’s army • Royalist army outmatched by Cromwell’s troops • 1646, king surrendered • Cromwell dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with him • Those left made up what was called the Rump Parliament Royalists and Roundheads • Without Parliament’s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army • Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles • Parliament could back its army by voting for funding • Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircuts • Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes
Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial During trial, Charles defended self with great eloquence, refused to even recognize Parliament’s authority to try him In the end, Charles sentenced to death for treason January 30, 1649, publicly beheaded in front of own palace To some he was martyr; to others tyrant who got what he deserved Trial and Execution
England under Cromwell • Commonwealth • England’s government changed completely for the next 11 years • House of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchy • Became commonwealth, government based on common good of all people • Lord Protector • 1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland • Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience • Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment • Foreign Issues • Cromwell also had to deal with foreign issues • Led military expeditions to Scotland, Ireland • Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain
Leviathan Questions of Rule • In Leviathan, Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful • Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live • Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government • Cromwell, the king’s death, war troubled many English people • One was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s rule • Hobbes wrote classic work of political science, Leviathan A Defender of Absolutism
Identify Cause and Effect What were some effects of the English Civil War? Answer(s): temporarily ended monarchy and House of Lords, restricted English social life in certain ways
The Restoration The New King • 1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked father’s leadership abilities • His government collapsed • Eventually Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchy—event known as the Restoration • Spring 1660, Parliament invited son of Charles I to be new king • Parliament laid out certain conditions which Charles accepted • Was crowned as Charles II • People shouted their good wishes The Monarchy Returns Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible. Pepys: “Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bells…every body seems to be very joyfull in the business…”
The Reign of Charles II • Charles had to address many issues—conflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developed • Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England • Restoration years, mixture of positive, negative events • Positive and Negative • Charles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resulted • Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released • 1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of London • After fire, Charles supported public construction projects
Not Popular Glorious Revolution • James married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank James’s Protestant daughters from first marriage • 1685, Charles died, James crowned king • Many wondered if another destructive war would follow • James not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarch • English did not tolerate that belief • 1688, group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queen • William and Mary both Protestants, lived in Netherlands • James fled to France • Parliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution James II Later in Charles’s reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic.
Constitutional Monarchy Bill of Rights • Bill of Rights central to England’s growth as Constitutional Monarchy, term for monarchy limited by law • Document’s approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English government • England had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by law • With Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queen • More important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking throne—the English Bill of Rights • Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions • U.S. Bill of Rights based on this document Changes in Government
Describe What happened during the Glorious Revolution? Answer(s): William and Mary were given the English throne by Parliament.