Text A Culture Shock • 1. Teaching Objectives • 2. Teaching Procedures - Before Reading - Language Points - After Reading
Teaching Objectives • Grasp the main idea and structure of the text; • Master the language points and grammatical structures in the text; • Be familiar with the contrast and comparison essay.
3. Teaching Procedures-Before Reading Before reading ★ Background information ★ Discussion questions ★ Part Division of the Text ★ Skimming and Scanning
Text A- Before ReadingBackground Information • The term “culture shock” was introduced for the first time in 1954 by Kalvero Oberg. Now let’s learn something in detail about it. 1. Definition 2. Six aspects of culture shock 3.A typical six-month cycle of culture shock 4.Causes of culture shock 5.Signs of culture shock 6.Dealing with intercultural stress and shock
Definition Culture shock is a term used to describe the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation,confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within an entirely different culture or social environment, such as a different country.
Six aspects of culture shock 1. Strain due to the effort required to make necessary psychological adaptations. 2. A sense of loss and feelings of deprivation regardingfriends, family, status, career and possessions. 3. Being rejected by and/or rejecting members of the new culture. 4. Confusion in role, role expectation, values, feelings andself identity. 5. Surprise, anxiety and even disgust and indignation after becoming aware of cultural differences. 6. Feelings of impotence due to not being able to cope with a new environment.
A typical six-month cycle of culture shock Pre-Departure First Month Sixth Month Fourth and Fifth Months Second Month Third Month
Pre-Departure:Defined by excitement,anticipation and enthusiasm. Emotions are running high and although excited, everyone is also a bit apprehensive andconcerned. First Month: Still filled with the excitement of travel and newness of food, culture and environment. Learning the language becomes a priority.
Second Month: Distinguished by the awareness of differences being felt as unpleasant.Inconveniences in accommodation, not speaking the language well enough and the lack of familiarity of foods, shops, friends and surroundings are noticed. Third Month: Often the low point in the adjustment period. Language skills seem to stagnate and personal productivity drops. Nothing about the new culture seems positive. Family and friends are greatly missed.
Fourth and Fifth Months: The beginning of the return of enthusiasm and enjoyment. New foods, new ways of doing things and the language are tried with a positive effect. Emotions are smoother, confidence is regained and built up, and health is restored. Sixth Month: Brings normal lifestyle, with established routines and social life in place. The ups and downs of living abroad are accepted. Normality, indeed, has finally smiled on you once again.
Causes of culture shock 1. Being cut off from cultural signals and known patterns of communication, especially the subtle, indirect ways of expressing feelings. 2. Living or working over an extended period of time in a situation that is ambiguous. 3. Having personal values (which were previously considered absolutes) brought into question. 4. Being continually put into positions in which you are expected to function with maximum skill and speed, but where the rules have not been adequately explained.
Signs of culture shock homesickness, withdrawal, stereotyping of host nationals, need for excessive amounts of sleep, marital stress, loss of ability to work effectively, compulsive eating or drinking, unexplainable fits of weeping, irritability, physical ailments, boredom, exaggerated cleanliness, family tension and conflict
Dealing with intercultural stress and shock • Gather information. The more that is known about a place or its people, the less foreign or threatening they seem. Consider traveling locally, taking a cooking class, or joining a club. • Do not criticize the host culture. Resist the temptation of talking negatively about the local people. • Find a friend. Find someone who can serve as a “cultural informant” to introduce parts of local life and practices that are not normally accessible to foreigners. This will help make sense of the cultural differences one naturally encounters. • Look at the “big picture.” Find patterns and interrelationships that explain what is going on so that it no longer seems confusing.
Text A – Before reading Discussion Question • Do you sometimes find it difficult to adopt a new environment? Why? • suppose one of your foreign friends comes to work in China. What suggestions would you give to help him settle down?
Text A- Before ReadingPart division We might call culture shock a disease which is caused by the frustration and anxiety resulting from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Culture shock is due to our own lack of understanding of other people’s cultural background and our lack of the means of communication rather than the hostility of an alien environment. To get over culture shock, we should get to know the people of the host country and their language; we should find out what they do, how they do it, and what their interests are, etc. But understanding the ways of a people does not mean that we have to give up our own.
Text A- Before ReadingSkimming and Scanning • Reading Text A carefully and answer the following question: • What is the cultural environment made up of according to the passage? A cultural environment consists of man-made physical objects, social institution, and ideas and beliefs. 2. Is culture acquired? Yes, it is. An individual is not born with culture but only with the capacity to learn it and use it.
3. What does culture enable young people to do? Culture enables the young to learn to adapt themselves to the physical environment and to the people with whom they associate. • What is ethnocentrism? It is a belief people hold that not only their culture but their race and nation form the center of the world.
5. What is the proper way for us to treat ethnocentrism according to the author? We should recognize that ethnocentrism is a permanent characteristic of national groups. 6. What should people know first in order to overcome culture shock? People should realize that their trouble is caused by lack of understanding of different cultural background and the lack of means to communicate, and that both understanding and means can be gained by themselves.
TEXT A Language Points
Culture ShockPara1Kalervo Oberg We might almost call culture shock an occupational disease of people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most ailments it has its own cause, symptoms, and cure. 和大部分疾病一样，这种病有其独特的起因、症状和疗法。
Para2 Culture shock isprecipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. These signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situations of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not.These cues which may be words, gestures,facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept.All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues.
Para3 • Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort: “The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad.” When Americans or other foreigners in a strange land get together to complain about the host country and its people — you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To an American everything American becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.
Para 4 In an effort to get overculture shock, there is some value in knowing something about the nature of culture and its relationship to the individual. In addition to living in a physical environment, an individual lives in a cultural environment consisting of man-made physical objects, social institutions, and ideas and beliefs. An individual is not born with culture but only with the capacity to learn it and use it. There is nothing in a newborn child which dictates that it should eventually speak Portuguese, English, or French; nor that he should eat with a fork in his left hand rather than in the right or use chopsticks. All these things the child has to learn. Nor are the parents responsible for the culture which they transmit to their young.
任何一个民族的文化都是历史的产物，经过漫长的、本民族意识不到的过程才得以积累形成。任何一个民族的文化都是历史的产物，经过漫长的、本民族意识不到的过程才得以积累形成。 Para 4 The culture of any people is the product of his try and is built upover time largely through processes which are beyond his awareness. It is by means ofculture that the young learn to adapt themselves to the physical environment and to the people with whom they associate. And as we know, children and adolescents often experience difficulties in this process of learning and adjustment. But once learned, culture becomes a way of life.
Para 5 People have a way of accepting their culture as both the best and the only way of doing things. This is perfectly normal and understandable. To this attitude we give the name ethnocentrism, a belief that not only the culture but the race and the nation form the center of the world. Individuals identify themselves withtheir own group to the extent thatany critical comment is taken as a remark which is rude to the individual as well as to the group. If you criticize my country, you are criticizing me; if you criticize me, you are criticizing my country. Along with this attitude goes thetendency to attribute all individual peculiarities as national characteristics.
例如，倘若一个美国人在国外做出怪异的或有悖社会公德的事情，在美国国内的人们会认为这纯属个人行为，但在国外却被视为一种民族特性。例如，倘若一个美国人在国外做出怪异的或有悖社会公德的事情，在美国国内的人们会认为这纯属个人行为，但在国外却被视为一种民族特性。 Para 5 For instance,if an American does something odd or anti-social in a foreign country which back home would be considered a purely individual act, this is now considered a national trait. He acts that way not because he is Joe Doaks but because he is an American. Instead of being censured as an individual, his country is censured. It is thus best to recognize that ethnocentrism is a permanent characteristic of national groups. Even if a national criticizes some aspect of his own culture, the foreigner should listen but not enter into the criticism.
Para 6 Once you realize that your trouble is due to your own lack of understanding of other people’s cultural background and your own lack of the means of communication rather than the hostility of an alien environment, you also realize that you yourself can gain this understanding and these means of communication. And the sooner you do this, the sooner culture shock will disappear.
Para 7 The question now arises, what can you do to get over culture shock as quickly as possible? The answer is getting to know the people of the host country. But this you cannot do with any success without knowing the language, for language is the principal symbol system of communication. Now we all know that learning a new language is difficult, particularly to adults. This task alone is quite enough to cause frustration and anxiety, no matter how skillful language teachers are in making it easy for you. But once you begin to be able to carry on a friendly conversation with your maid, your neighbour, or to go on shopping trips alone, you not only gain confidence and a feeling of power but a whole new world of cultural meanings opens up for you.
Para 8 You begin to find out what people do, how they do it, and what their interests are. People usually express these interests by what they habitually talk about and how they allocate their time and money. Once you know this value or interest pattern it will be quite easy to get people to talk to and be interested in you.
Para 9 At times it is helpful to be a participant observer by joining the activities of the people, to try to share in their responses, whether this be a carnival, a religious ritual, or some economic activity. Yet the visitor should never forget that he or she is an outsider and will be treated as such. He or she should view this participation as a role-playing. Understanding the ways of a people is essential but this does not mean that you have to give up your own. What happens is that you have developed two patterns of behavior.
transplant: • 1. vt. to move from one place and settle elsewhere e.g. We start the flowers indoors and then transplant them to the garden. His kidney was transplanted in his daughter. • Collocation: heart transplant surgery心脏移植手术 a bone marrow transplant骨髓移植
ailment: n. an illness that is not very serious It was still unclear what caused the victims’ ailments. The medicine was supposed to cure all kinds of ailments, ranging from colds to back pains.
CF: ailment, illness, disease & complaint ailment illness disease complaint 指身体或精神不适，尤其指小毛病。例如： 泛指一切疾病，强调生病的时间或状态。例如： 指具体的疾病，且通常较严重，发病时间也较长。例如： 指具体部位的疾病，尤其指不是很严重的那种。例如： His ailment was only a slight headache. 他身体不舒服，有点轻微的头痛。 Her mother was just recovering from an illness . 他妈妈生了一场病，刚刚康复。 She suffers from a rare disease of the brain. 她得了罕见的脑病。 He is having treatment for a chest complaint. 他正在接受胸部疾病的治疗。
cure: 1. n. treatment or substance that cures; remedy There is still no cure for AIDS. 预防比任何一种治疗都要好得多。 Prevention is far better than any cure. 2. vt. to make an illness or medical condition go away Many types of cancer can now be cured. Ninety percent of patients can be cured of the disease. Pattern: cure sb. of sth. 把某人的病治愈 She had some acupuncture treatment which seems to have cured her. 针灸几次后她的病似乎痊愈了。
precipitate: 1.vt. to make (an unwanted event) happen sooner An attack on the country could precipitate a world war. The 1929 stock market crash precipitated the collapse of the American banking system. 2.vi. to separate a solid substance from a liquid by chemical action, or to be separated in this way This material causes most of the alumina in the solution to precipitate quickly. 3. n. a solid substance that has been chemically separated from a liquid 老师让他在沉淀物溶解后再加热混合物。 The teacher asked him to warm the mixture after the precipitate dissolved.
4. adj.happening or done too quickly, and not thought about carefully A precipitate decision leads to his failure. 一阵冷风造成气温急剧下降。 A cool breeze caused a precipitate drop in the temperature. NB: 该词作动词用时，近义词为hasten；作形容词用时，近义词为hasty。
orient: v. to arrange or direct with a particular purpose She looked at the street names, trying to orient herself. Detailed Reading_ orient1 登山者停下来以便辨别自己的方位。 The climber stopped to orient himself. The meeting decided that the magazine had to orient to the busisness community.
Collocations: orient oneself to sth.使自己熟悉某事 be oriented to/towards/around sth/sb迎合某人的需要, 围绕某事 It takes new students a while to orientate themselves to college life. Detailed Reading_ orient2 新同学要花一定的时间来熟悉校园生活。 A lot of the training is orientated around communications skills. 很多培训都是围绕交际技能展开的。 NB: 该词还可以用作名词，意为“东方”，但通常以the Orient的形式出现。例如： The traveler made a fame for himself by a book about the Orient. 这个旅行家凭了一本描写东方的书一举成名。
purchase: 1. n. sth. you buy, or the act of buying it Other customers arrived, made their purchases and left. Detailed Reading_ purchase1 那顶帽子买得不错。 That hat was a good purchase. date of purchase 购买日期 proof of purchase 购买凭证 hire purchase分期付款 make purchases 购物 2. vt. to buy sth. Foreign investors are not permitted to purchase land.
when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. • Say something more about the usage of “when/what/how/ infinitive” structure. • There are three points to remember when you use this kind • of structure: • This structure is used only after such English verbs as • ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, • remember, see (=understand/perceive), and wonder, etc.; • 2) Besides “when/what/how”, words like “where/which/whether” can also be used in this structure; • 3) The structure “whether + infinitive” is usually used after • “want to know” or “wonder.” • More examples: • *I found out where to buy fruit cheaply. • *I didn’t know when to switch the machine off. • *I wondered whether to write or phone.
These cues which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. 1. According to this statement, what makes up our culture? The cues we acquire in daily life, the language we speak, and the beliefs we accept. 2.what are these signs or cues? These signs or cues may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, etc. 这些暗示可以是语言、手势、面部表情、风俗习惯或社会行为标准。我们在成长的过程中获得了这些暗示，就像我们的语言和我们所接受的信仰一样，它们已经成为我们文化的一部分。
All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues. • What does this sentence mean? Without these familiar cues such as words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, we would probably get lost and suffer from frustration and anxiety, and wouldn’t be able to work efficiently.
Do the two words “American” in this sentence mean the same? To an American everything American becomes irrationally glorified. No, they don’t mean the same. The first “American” is a noun, meaning “someone from the USA,” while the second is used as an adjective, meaning “relating to the USA.”
a fish out of water: 不得其所的人；与环境不合的人 sb. who is uncomfortable; sb. who is at a disadvantage be/feel like a fish out of water 感觉格格不入 Detailed Reading_ a fish out of water I felt like a fish out of water in my new school. She can’t take care of herself. She’ll be like a fish out of water if hse leaves her parents
CF: tremendous, huge, vast & giant tremendous huge vast giant tremendous: adj. very great in size, amount, or degree She was making a tremendous effort to appear calm. Detailed Reading_ tremendous 1 这个计划能省我们一大笔钱。 This plan could save us a tremendous amount of money. 这些形容词均有“巨大的” ，“庞大的”之意。 指某物非常大，大得惊人。强调尺寸大小、数量以及程度方 面的大。 含义广，强调体积或容积的庞大。也可用于引申意义。 多指空间、面积、范围的巨大，不涉及重量。 非常大，强调比同类中的其他事物大得多。
glorify: vt. + with 美化；使显得更重要 to cause to appear more important or better than they really are Detailed Reading_glorify Movies that glorify violence may be responsible for some of the rise in crime. The emperor’s achievements were glorified in numerous poems.
get over: 1) to find a way to deal with 克服，战胜 Jenny hasn’t got over her fear of flying yet, so she prefers to go there by train Detailed Reading_get over 我不知道我们应该怎样解决这个问题。 I don’t know how we’re going to get over this problem. 2) to become well again after an illness or a very upsetting experience 恢复 It’s taken me ages to get over the flu. 她从没有从儿子去世的悲伤中恢复过来。 She never got over the death of her son.