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The BIG Idea Order and Security New farming practices supported population growth, and the revival of trade led to a money-based economy and the rise of cities. Section 1-Main Idea. The New Agriculture.

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Section 1-Main Idea


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    1. The BIG Idea Order and SecurityNew farming practices supported population growth, and the revival of trade led to a money-based economy and the rise of cities. Section 1-Main Idea

    2. The New Agriculture New inventions for farming and more efficient use of land contributed to population growth in the High Middle Ages. Section 1

    3. The New Agriculture (cont.) • The European population doubled in size between 1000 and 1300. • The large population increase in Europe was due in part to a more peaceful environment and changes in technology. • Food production was increased by using scythes, axes, and hoes. Section 1

    4. The New Agriculture (cont.) • A new plow called the carrucaled to the growth of farming villages. People had to work together to buy the iron needed to make the plow and share the team of animals needed to pull the plow. • Europeans also started using three-field rotations, harnessing wind and water, and using animal power to save labor and produce more crops. Section 1

    5. The Manorial System Under the manorial system of the Middle Ages, serfs worked the lands of lords. Section 1

    6. The Manorial System (cont.) • The manorwas an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by serfs. • Serfsprovided labor services, paid rents, and were subject to the control of the lord. By 800 A.D. 60% of Western Europeans were serfs • The life of European peasants was very simple. They lived in wood framed cottages, generally consisting of one or two rooms. Section 1

    7. The Manorial System (cont.) • The seasons of the year dictated peasant activities. • Religious holidays provided peasants with time away from work and brought them into contact with the Church. • Peasant women had to work in the field, raise children, and manage the household. The Peasant’s Wheel of Life Section 1

    8. The Manorial System (cont.) • Grains were used for making bread, the daily food of peasants, and ale. Vegetables, cheeses, and sometimes meat supplemented the meals of peasants. • Water was not easy to obtain, so wine was the drink of the upper classes and ale was the drink of the poor. Section 1

    9. Describe a manor A.Agricultural estate run by a lord and worker by peasants B.Agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by serfs C.Land that peasants owned and serfs worked D.None of the above BY

    10. What is one contribution to population growth during the high middle ages A.New inventions for farming and more efficient use of land B.War led to expansion of European Kingdoms C.People became nomads and traveled throughout Europe. D.None of the above BY

    11. Which of the following was a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare? A.Oxcart B.Carruca C.Shovel D.Cabochon BY

    12. By 800, approximately what percentage of the western European population were serfs? A.20% B.40% C.60% D.80% BY

    13. The Revival of Trade The revival of trade during the High Middle Ages gave rise to a commercial revolution. Section 1

    14. The Revival of Trade (cont.) • As trade increased, demand for gold and silver coins increased. Eventually, a money economyreplacedthe barter system. • New trading companies and banking firms led to the economic system of commercial capitalism. Section 1

    15. The Growth of Cities The revival of trade spurred the growth of cities, which became centers for manufacturing and trade. Section 1

    16. The Growth of Cities (cont.) • The revival of trade led to a revival of cities. • Merchants and artisans moved into these newly revitalized cities and became known as bourgeoisie. • The people in the cities and towns slowly gained their independence from local lords. The cities created their own governments, and patricianswere elected legally or illegally. Medieval Trade Routes Section 1

    17. The Growth of Cities (cont.) • Medieval towns were surrounded by stone walls and were cramped and dirty. Pollution and the threat of fire plagued the city inhabitants. • People began to organize themselves into business associations. These guildsplayed a leading role in the economic life of cities. Section 1

    18. The Growth of Cities (cont.) • A person who wanted to learn a trade went through a series of steps. • People started as unpaid apprentices, earned wages as a journeyman, and could become a master by producing a masterpiece. Section 1

    19. Serfs were different from peasants in that serfs • Owned the land they worked on • Could live anywhere they chose except land that was part of the lord’s estate • C. Were legally bound to the land upon which they worked and lived • D. Lived in the cities and were not farmers like the peasants BY

    20. Merchants and artisans living in walled cities came to be called? A. Burghers or bourgeoisie, from the German word burg. B.Highwaymen, members who are wealthy C.Masters D.Apartment dwellers BY

    21. A tenth of ones produce is called a A. Basket of produce B.Tithe C.Groupon D.Wealthy Man BY

    22. At which point in the guild system did a person work for no wages? A. apprentice B.journeyman C.master D.guild director BY

    23. Section 1-End

    24. The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and ValuesWith its strong leadership, the Catholic Church became a dominant and forceful presence in medieval society. Section 2-Main Idea

    25. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) • The popes of the Catholic Church had political and religious power since they controlled the PapalStates. • PopeGregoryVIIwanted to free the Church of political interference from lords and kings and ended the practice of layinvestiture. • Gregory claimed that the pope had authority over the entire Christian world including its rulers. If rulers did not accept this, they would be removed. Section 2

    26. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) • HenryIVof Germany disagreed with the pope’s view and a struggle known as the Investiture Controversy ensued. • Under the ConcordatofWormsagreement in 1122, a bishop in Germany was elected by the Church, and then the bishop paid homage to the king. Section 2

    27. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) • Papal power was strengthened under PopeInnocentIII who used the interdictto get his way. • People feared not receiving sacraments, and pressured rulers to listen to the pope. Section 2

    28. A B C D Lay investiture was a practice by which A.Craftsmen joined the church B.Secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office C.Merchants invested in foreign goods for the purpose of making a profit D.Guilds determined the maximum and minimum prices that could be charged for a certain good or service Section 2

    29. A B C D The struggle between Henry IV and Gregory VII was known as the A.The Investiture Controversy B.The Seven Years War C.The Mega Argument D.The Concordat of Worms Section 2

    30. A B C D Who fought the idea that the pope is the supreme ruler of all Christian lands? A.Gregory VII B.Henry IV C.Innocent III D.Philip Augustus Section 2

    31. A B C D To achieve his political ends, Pope Innocent III often used an interdict, which A.Allowed the pope to choose a king’s successor B.Prohibited priests from giving sacraments of the Church to a particular group of people. C.Forbade certain groups from holding office D.Declared a holy war against enemies of the Church Section 2

    32. New Religious Orders As religious enthusiasm spread through Europe, new monastic orders emerged. Section 2

    33. New Religious Orders (cont.) • In the 1200s, the Franciscanswere founded by St. FrancisofAssisi. Francis was a wealthy merchant from Assisiwho decided to give up his worldly possessions and preach to the poor. • The Franciscans became popular for their simplicity and devotion to the poor. Section 2

    34. New Religious Orders (cont.) • The Dominicans were dedicated to defending Church teachings from heresy. • To deal with heretics, the Church created the Inquisition. This court had regular proceedings to find and try heretics. Section 2

    35. Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) • Some people, because of their holiness, were called saints and were revered by the people. • Relicswere usually the bones of saints or objects connected to saints. • Worshipping relics and pilgrimages to holy sites were important to European Christians. Section 2

    36. A B C D Born to a wealthy merchant family, Francis Assisi A.Used his status in society to improve the life of women. B.Eventually abandoned all worldly goods and material pursuits to live and preach in poverty. C.Was both a wealthy and successful merchant and poet D.Gave up his claim to the family fortunes to join the Benedictine monastic order and compose music Section 2

    37. A B C D Court created by the Church to find and try heretics. A.Interdict B.Inquisition C. Lay investiture D.Ordeal Section 2

    38. A B C D The denial of basic Church doctrines A. Schism B.Relics C.Heresy D.Commandment Section 2

    39. Section 2-End

    40. Architecture Gothic cathedrals, an artistic triumph of the High Middle Ages, were built in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Section 3

    41. Architecture (cont.) • In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, churches were built in the Romanesque style. • The constructionof the Romanesque churches was similar to the basilicas of the Roman era, except that instead of flat roofs, they had arched vaults. Section 3

    42. Architecture (cont.) • Romanesque churches required massive pillars to hold up the stone roofs, and had little light due to the lack of windows. • A new style, called Gothic, utilized ribbed vaults and flying buttresses to allow for higher ceilings and thinner walls. Section 3

    43. Universities Medieval university students applied scholasticism to the study of theology. Section 3

    44. Universities (cont.) • The High Middle Ages saw the rise of universities. • The first European university was established in Bologna, Italy. Soon, universities were set up in Paris, France, and Oxfordin England. • Students could earn a doctorate in law, medicine, or theology. University Locations Section 3

    45. Universities (cont.) • Theology, the most highly regarded subject, was influenced by scholasticism. • Scholasticism attempted to reconcile Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers such as Aristotle, who reached conclusions by rational thought, not by faith. • In the 1200s, SaintThomasAquinaswrote his masterpiece SummaTheologicawhich concluded that reason could not conflict with truths arrived at through faith. Section 3

    46. A B C D Where was the first university in Europe located? A.Rome, Italy B.Bologna, Italy C.Oxford, England D.Paris, France Section 3

    47. Vernacular Literature Troubadour poetry and the heroic epic poem were popular forms of vernacular literature in the twelfth century. Section 3

    48. Vernacular Literature (cont.) • Latin was the universal language used in the Church and schools. • New literature began to be written in vernacular,or everyday speech. • The most popular vernacular literature of the twelfth century was troubadour poetry. Section 3

    49. Section 3-End

    50. A B Do you think a deadly, communicable disease would significantly change your community economically and socially? A. Yes B. No Section 4-Polling Question