energy management life cycle and energy in transports 2 st semester 2013 2014 n.
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Energy Management– Life cycle and energy in Transports 2 st semester 2013/2014. Carla Silva. E-mail: carla.silva@ist.utl.pt Principal investigator @ IDMEC Researcher ID: A-4724-2012. OUTLINE Industrial ecology and LCA Life cycle notion ISO norms steps

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Energy Management– Life cycle and energy in Transports 2 st semester 2013/2014


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    1. Energy Management– Life cycle and energy in Transports2st semester 2013/2014 Carla Silva E-mail: carla.silva@ist.utl.pt Principal investigator @ IDMEC Researcher ID: A-4724-2012

    2. OUTLINE • Industrial ecology and LCA • Life cycle notion • ISO norms steps • Goal, boundaries, allocation, functional unit? • What assessments to choose? • Impact assessment calculation • Softwares/databases • Examples

    3. “Industrial metabolism” study of material and energy flows through industrial systems. Inputs/Outputs Sustainability Energy Emissions Impact • “closed loop system where wastes can become inputs for new processes” Zero waste

    4. LCA – Life Cycle Analysis • Methodology to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from cradle-to-grave • Raw material extraction • Materials processing • Manufacture • Distribution • Use • Maintenance • Disposal or recycling Steps as in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006

    5. Life Cycle – Goal and scope definition • Functional unit* • System boundaries; • Assumptions and limitations; • Allocation methods**; and • Impact categories Cradle-to-Grave (CTG) Cradle-to-Gate (CTG) Cradle-to-Cradle (CTC) Gate-to-Gate (GTG) Well-to-Wheel (WTW) *defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can be related; important basis that enables the product to be compared and analyzed **used to partition the environmental load of a process when several products or functions share the same process mass and economic

    6. Life Cycle – Goal and scope definition

    7. Life Cycle – Goal and scope definition

    8. Life Cycle – Inventory Inputs-Outputs balance • FU – Functional Unit e.g. MJ of final product • kg of final product • passenger.km • km

    9. Life Cycle – Inventory CO2, NOx, PM

    10. Life Cycle – Inventory 1 wash/day 75 day g/day

    11. Life Cycle – Inventory

    12. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment • Selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; • Classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; • Impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized, using one of many possible LCIA methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total.

    13. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment problem-oriented (mid points) damage-oriented (end points) e.g. Procter & Gamble …. “It is important to understand both the advantages and limitations of the conversion in order to interpret the indicators properly and reach sound conclusions.”

    14. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment LCIA methodologies Eco-Indicator 99 Eco-Indicator 95 CML 2001 Impact 2002

    15. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment Eco-Indicator

    16. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment Climate change (global warming potential 20/100/500 years) CO2eq [kg] = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    17. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment Acidification ref SO2

    18. Life Cycle – Impact Assessment Eutrophication enrichment of aquatic systems with nutrients

    19. Tools/Software http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/toolList.vm Generic Car specific

    20. Life cycle notion

    21. Energy equivalency methods hydro and wind 40% nuclear 40 % geothermal 40 % (e.g. EIA) hydro and wind 100% nuclear 33 % geothermal 10 % (e.g. IEAand Eurostat)

    22. Life cycle notion

    23. Life Cycle – Goal and scope definition

    24. Energy Management– Life cycle and energy in Transports2st semester 2013/2014 Carla Silva E-mail: carla.silva@ist.utl.pt Principal investigator @ IDMEC Researcher ID: A-4724-2012