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Module 10 Energy Management Energy management basics Energy audit Demand-side management Life-cycle assessment Exergy analysis Carbon and ecological footprints Clean development mechanism.

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    1. Module 10 Energy Management Energy management basics Energy audit Demand-side management Life-cycle assessment Exergy analysis Carbon and ecological footprints Clean development mechanism

    2. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: • I think most people would agree on the objectives. • We want the world to have enough energy for growth and development (affordability). • We want that energy to come from sources we can rely on (security). • We want it to be produced and consumed in a way that is safe and compatible with the health of the environment (sustainability) . • But we need to be clear about what is possible and what is not. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    3. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: • Five realities: • - continue to anticipate strong growth in demand for energy • fossil fuels continue to provide around 80% of the world’s energy in 2030 • oil will remain the dominant transport fuel (87% of transport fuel in 2030 will still be petroleum-based) • - industry needs to go to new frontiers to find oil - and indeed alternatives. • - significant rise in greenhouse gas emissions (in the most likely case) http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    4. Energy Production (million tonnes oil equivalent): Renewables biofuels Hydro Nuclear Coal Natural Gas London, 18 January, 2012 liquids

    5. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    6. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: First opportunity: Efficiency Saving energy through greater efficiency addresses several issues at once. It helps with affordability (because less energy is needed). It helps with security (because it reduces dependence on imports). It helps with sustainability (because it reduces emissions). Efficiency can be achieved through improving processes or reducing waste, but it is also frequently enabled by technology. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    7. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: Second opportunity: Technology Example: Supply of gas has been accelerated as a result of technologies that unlock shale gas and tight gas. In the transport sector, we believe the efficiency of the internal combustion engine is likely to double over the next 20 years. And that will save roughly a Saudi Arabia’s worth of production. By 2030, we expect hybrids to account for most car sales and roughly 30% of all vehicles on the road. Technological innovation is driven by many factors – economic, scientific, political and personal – but the primary driver is frequently competition. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    8. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: Third opportunity: Competition Last year average oil prices reached an all-time high. However, high prices stimulate competition, which leads to innovation, as we strive to find lower cost solutions. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    9. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: Fourth opportunity: Natural gas Natural gas typically generates fewer than half the emissions of coal when burned for power. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    10. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: Fifth opportunity: Biofuels We have an optimistic view on the future of biofuels - but production needs to be scaled up. The world needs to focus on biofuels that do not compete with the food chain and are produced in a sustainable way. The greatest promise is offered by next generation biofuels such as those derived from cellulosic plants. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    11. Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012: So this study highlights some clear opportunities for accelerating progress towards secure and sustainable energy. The first three are linked: competition helps to drive technology, which in turn helps to drive efficiency, and the second two are examples of this process at work – the growth of natural gas and biofuels. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

    12. Energy Management aims to lower the cost by • - eliminating unnecessary energy use • - improving the efficiency of needed energy use • - buying energy at lower net prices • - adjusting operations to allow purchasing energy at lower prices www.EnergyBooks.com

    13. What is Energy Management? Energy management is the process of monitoring, controlling and conserving (saving) energy. http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

    14. Why should energy be conserved (or saved)? • - To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels that are becoming increasingly limited in supply (peak oil phenomenon) • - To reduce the damage that we are doing to our plant (global warming, and other energy related pollution) • To ensure a sustainable energy future • To be able to continue to afford energy • To reduce the risk of energy dependence http://www.energylens.com/articles/energy-management

    15. The four steps of effective energy management 1) Identify ALL your opportunities (by carrying out an energy audit using competent people) 2) Prioritize your actions rationally (by considering all the criteria that matter, not just the economic criteria) 3) Accomplish your activities successfully. 4) Maintain your activities endlessly (failure is the largest cost of energy conservation) www.EnergyBooks.com

    16. Step 1: Identify all your opportunities • Carry out an “energy audit” to find all your opportunities. • The energy auditor requires scientific and engineering education, broad practical experience, and solid judgement. • The energy auditor needs a thorough understanding of ALL opportunities, not just a few. • A good “energy audit” takes time and costs money. • Even today, competent energy audits are rare. • Lack of competent energy audits is the greatest deficiency of present energy management, which results in continued high energy costs, and waste of money on ineffective action. • The energy audit is the foundation on which the entire energy management program rests. A deficient energy audit WILL cause a deficient energy management program www.EnergyBooks.com

    17. Step 2: Prioritize your activities rationally • The sequence of activities is a major factor in the economic benefit of energy management program. • Consider all the criteria that matter, not just the economic criteria. Cost, by itself, is almost never a significant selection factor. Because, IF the measure works as expected, it provides a higher rate of return than most other investments. So, you can borrow the money, if necessary. • - Calculate with realistic numbers. • Limit consideration to measures of proven reliability. • Consider the ability of your staff to accomplish and maintain each measure. www.EnergyBooks.com

    18. Step 3: Accomplish your activities successfully • Each cost saving activity is an independent project that requires its own knowledge, equipment, and people. • The key to success is doing the homework before initiating each activity. www.EnergyBooks.com

    19. Step 4: Maintain your activities endlessly - Almost nothing continues to operate successfully by itself. - Each energy management activity requires continuing support. - Integrate the maintenance of each activity seamlessly into your overall operations. www.EnergyBooks.com

    20. The largest cost of energy conservation is FAILURE.If an activity does not work, it will not pay back. Keep tuning the program. There is always room for improvement. Energy management NEVER ENDS. www.EnergyBooks.com

    21. Selected topics in Energy Management: Energy audit Demand-side management Life-cycle assessment Exergy analysis Carbon and ecological footprints Clean development mechanism

    22. Energy audit • What type of energy is being used? • How much energy is used? • What is the consumption pattern? • How much does it cost? • What are the areas of priority? Try to answer the above questions in an energy audit. http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

    23. Energy Audit at a Processing Plant (example)

    24. Methodology of Energy Audit • Pre-audit presentation. • Collection of data / information. • Measurements and monitoring with instruments. • Computation and in-depth analysis. • Post-audit presentation to discuss the Energy Conservation Opportunities identified by the audit team.

    25. Scope of Energy Audit ELECTRICAL • Electrical Distribution Network and Transformers • Motive Loads • Illumination System • Compressed Air System • Cooling Tower • Refrigeration System THERMAL • Boilers • Steam Traps • Steam Distribution • Insulation

    26. Electrical System Network & Transformers This would include detailed study of all the transformer operations of various ratings / capacities, their operational pattern, loading, no load losses, power factor measurement on the main power distribution boards and scope for improvement if any. The study would also cover possible improvements in energy metering systems for better control and monitoring.

    27. Motive Load Study of above 10 HP motors in terms of measurement of voltage (V), current (I), power (kW) and power factor in a complete cycle. Suggestion of measures for energy saving like reduction in size of motors or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors. Study of mechanical power transmission systems (pumps, fans, blower, etc.) to evolve suitable recommendations wherever feasible for energy efficiency improvements.

    28. Illumination System Study of the illumination system, LUX level in various areas, area lighting etc. And, suggest measures for improvements and energy conservation opportunity wherever feasible.

    29. Compressed Air System The audit would involve analysis of various parameters like free air delivery (FAD) capacity of the air compressors, leakages in the system, feasibility of pressure optimisation etc. wherever feasible /appropriate.

    30. Cooling Towers This would include detailed study of the operational performance of the cooling towers through measurements of temperature differential, air/ water flow rate, to enable evaluate specific performance parameters like approach, efficiency etc.

    31. Refrigeration System The audit would involve analysis of various parameters like co-efficient of performance (COP), tonnage delivered, effectiveness of the ducting and allied systems, measurement of specific energy consumption, study of refrigerant compressors, chilling units etc. Further, various measures would be suggested to improve its performance.

    32. Boiler Operations Study of steam generating systems, their combustion performance, heat balance, air to fuel ratios, blow down losses etc. Suggest suitable recommendations for improvements.

    33. Steam Distribution Network (including Traps & Insulation) Study of steam distribution network including layout of the steam pipelines, estimation of losses etc. to suggest suitable recommendations for improvements. The steam traps would be checked for its proper functioning. The study would also include evaluation of the radiation losses, steam leakages and insulation effectiveness.

    34. Diesel Generator (DG) Sets Study the operations of DG Sets to evaluate their average cost of power generation, specific energy generation and subsequently identify areas wherein energy savings could be achieved after analysing the operational practices etc. of the DG Sets.

    35. Instruments Used • Flue Gas Analyser • Power Analyser, Tachometer • Ultrasonic Flow Meter • Trap Man (For Steam Trap Survey) • Raytech Gun & Digital Thermometer (Non-contact and Contact type both) • Anemometer, pH/TDS/Conductivity meter • LUX Meter, Digital Manometer

    36. Boilers Observations: • Condensate recovery is not being done. • Feed water temperature presently is 50C. Recommendations: • Recover condensate to raise feed water temperature to upto 85C • Install de-aerator head on feed water tank and recover condensate. • Install steam operated condensate recovery pump

    37. Refrigeration System Observations: • Pumps connected to silos are of higher capacity of 15 kW. • Cooling water pumps of 45 kW are under loaded. • Glycol pumps of 15 kW are under loaded. • Water cooled condensers have poor performance Recommendations: • Replace 15 kW pumps connected to silos with 11 kW pumps. • Install variable frequency drive (VFD) for cooling water pumps to save 40 kW. • Install VFD for glycol pumps to save 8 kW. • Install air cooled condensers to save 6 kW.

    38. Illumination Observations: • High pressure mercury vapour (HPMV) lamps are used for street lighting. • 36 Watt tubelights with copper chokes are used. Recommendations: • Replace HPMV lamps by High pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps • Replace 36 Watt tubelights with T-5 28 Watt with electronic choke in a phased manner.

    39. Steam Traps & Condensate Observations: • All steam traps are working properly. • But, there is no condensate recovery from steam traps. Recommendations: • Recover the condensate and use it as boiler feed water and thereby increase the boiler feed water temperature.

    40. Motive Load Observations: • Diffuser & disposable pumps motors are loaded only 27% & 36% respectively. • Boiler feed pump motors are overloaded to 125%. Recommendations: • Running the diffuser pump and disposable pump motors in STAR mode. • Checking the condition of boiler feed pumps & repairing the same.

    41. Air Compressors Observations: • The loading and unloading pressure of air compressors is 7.5 kg/cm2 and 8.5 kg/cm2 which is high. • The air leakages are 37%. Recommendations: • Reducing the loading and unloading pressure to 6 kg/cm2 and 7 kg/cm2 as the working pressure is 6 kg/cm2 • Plugging the air leakage.