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slide1

Module 10

Energy Management

Energy management basics

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism

slide2

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

  • I think most people would agree on the objectives.
  • We want the world to have enough energy for growth and development (affordability).
  • We want that energy to come from sources we can rely on (security).
  • We want it to be produced and consumed in a way that is safe and compatible with the health of the environment (sustainability) .
  • But we need to be clear about what is possible and what is not.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide3

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

  • Five realities:
  • - continue to anticipate strong growth in demand for energy
  • fossil fuels continue to provide around 80% of the world’s energy in 2030
  • oil will remain the dominant transport fuel (87% of transport fuel in 2030 will still be petroleum-based)
  • - industry needs to go to new frontiers to find oil - and indeed alternatives.
  • - significant rise in greenhouse gas emissions (in the most likely case)

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide4

Energy Production (million tonnes oil equivalent):

Renewables biofuels

Hydro

Nuclear

Coal

Natural Gas

London, 18 January, 2012

liquids

slide15

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

First opportunity: Efficiency

Saving energy through greater efficiency addresses several issues at once.

It helps with affordability (because less energy is needed).

It helps with security (because it reduces dependence on imports).

It helps with sustainability (because it reduces emissions).

Efficiency can be achieved through improving processes or reducing waste, but it is also frequently enabled by technology.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide16

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

Second opportunity: Technology

Example: Supply of gas has been accelerated as a result of technologies that unlock shale gas and tight gas.

In the transport sector, we believe the efficiency of the internal combustion engine is likely to double over the next 20 years. And that will save roughly a Saudi Arabia’s worth of production.

By 2030, we expect hybrids to account for most car sales and roughly 30% of all vehicles on the road.

Technological innovation is driven by many factors – economic, scientific, political and personal – but the primary driver is frequently competition.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide17

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

Third opportunity: Competition

Last year average oil prices reached an all-time high. However, high prices stimulate competition, which leads to innovation, as we strive to find lower cost solutions.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide18

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

Fourth opportunity: Natural gas

Natural gas typically generates fewer than half the emissions of coal when burned for power.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide19

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

Fifth opportunity: Biofuels

We have an optimistic view on the future of biofuels - but production needs to be scaled up.

The world needs to focus on biofuels that do not compete with the food chain and are produced in a sustainable way.

The greatest promise is offered by next generation biofuels such as those derived from cellulosic plants.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide20

Remarks by Bob Dudley, Group Chief Executive, BP at launch of BP Energy Outlook 2030, London, 18 January, 2012:

So this study highlights some clear opportunities for accelerating progress towards secure and sustainable energy. The first three are linked:

competition helps to drive technology, which in turn helps to drive efficiency,

and the second two are examples of this process at work – the growth of natural gas and biofuels.

http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=98&contentId=7073056

slide21

Energy Management aims to lower the cost by

  • - eliminating unnecessary energy use
  • - improving the efficiency of needed energy use
  • - buying energy at lower net prices
  • - adjusting operations to allow purchasing energy at lower prices

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide22

What is Energy Management?

Energy management is the process of

monitoring,

controlling and

conserving (saving) energy.

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide23

Why should energy be conserved (or saved)?

  • - To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels that are becoming increasingly limited in supply (peak oil phenomenon)
  • - To reduce the damage that we are doing to our plant (global warming, and other energy related pollution)
  • To ensure a sustainable energy future
  • To be able to continue to afford energy
  • To reduce the risk of energy dependence

http://www.energylens.com/articles/energy-management

slide24

The four steps of effective energy management

1) Identify ALL your opportunities (by carrying out an energy audit using competent people)

2) Prioritize your actions rationally (by considering all the criteria that matter, not just the economic criteria)

3) Accomplish your activities successfully.

4) Maintain your activities endlessly (failure is the largest cost of energy conservation)

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide25

Step 1: Identify all your opportunities

  • Carry out an “energy audit” to find all your opportunities.
  • The energy auditor requires scientific and engineering education, broad practical experience, and solid judgement.
  • The energy auditor needs a thorough understanding of ALL opportunities, not just a few.
  • A good “energy audit” takes time and costs money.
  • Even today, competent energy audits are rare.
  • Lack of competent energy audits is the greatest deficiency of present energy management, which results in continued high energy costs, and waste of money on ineffective action.
  • The energy audit is the foundation on which the entire energy management program rests. A deficient energy audit WILL cause a deficient energy management program

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide26

Step 2: Prioritize your activities rationally

  • The sequence of activities is a major factor in the economic benefit of energy management program.
  • Consider all the criteria that matter, not just the economic criteria. Cost, by itself, is almost never a significant selection factor. Because, IF the measure works as expected, it provides a higher rate of return than most other investments. So, you can borrow the money, if necessary.
  • - Calculate with realistic numbers.
  • Limit consideration to measures of proven reliability.
  • Consider the ability of your staff to accomplish and maintain each measure.

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide27

Step 3: Accomplish your activities successfully

  • Each cost saving activity is an independent project that requires its own knowledge, equipment, and people.
  • The key to success is doing the homework before initiating each activity.

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide28

Step 4: Maintain your activities endlessly

- Almost nothing continues to operate successfully by itself.

- Each energy management activity requires continuing support.

- Integrate the maintenance of each activity seamlessly into your overall operations.

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide29

The largest cost of energy conservation is FAILURE.If an activity does not work, it will not pay back. Keep tuning the program. There is always room for improvement. Energy management NEVER ENDS.

www.EnergyBooks.com

slide30

Selected topics in Energy Management:

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism

slide31

Energy audit

  • What type of energy is being used?
  • How much energy is used?
  • What is the consumption pattern?
  • How much does it cost?
  • What are the areas of priority?

Try to answer the above questions in an energy audit.

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

methodology of energy audit
Methodology of Energy Audit
  • Pre-audit presentation.
  • Collection of data / information.
  • Measurements and monitoring with instruments.
  • Computation and in-depth analysis.
  • Post-audit presentation to discuss the Energy Conservation Opportunities identified by the audit team.
scope of energy audit
Scope of Energy Audit

ELECTRICAL

  • Electrical Distribution Network and Transformers
  • Motive Loads
  • Illumination System
  • Compressed Air System
  • Cooling Tower
  • Refrigeration System

THERMAL

  • Boilers
  • Steam Traps
  • Steam Distribution
  • Insulation
electrical system network transformers
Electrical System Network & Transformers

This would include detailed study of all the transformer operations of various ratings / capacities, their operational pattern, loading, no load losses, power factor measurement on the main power distribution boards and scope for improvement if any.

The study would also cover possible improvements in energy metering systems for better control and monitoring.

motive load
Motive Load

Study of above 10 HP motors in terms of measurement of voltage (V), current (I), power (kW) and power factor in a complete cycle.

Suggestion of measures for energy saving like reduction in size of motors or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors.

Study of mechanical power transmission systems (pumps, fans, blower, etc.) to evolve suitable recommendations wherever feasible for energy efficiency improvements.

illumination system
Illumination System

Study of the illumination system, LUX level in various areas, area lighting etc.

And, suggest measures for improvements and energy conservation opportunity wherever feasible.

compressed air system
Compressed Air System

The audit would involve analysis of various parameters like free air delivery (FAD) capacity of the air compressors, leakages in the system, feasibility of pressure optimisation etc. wherever feasible /appropriate.

cooling towers
Cooling Towers

This would include detailed study of the operational performance of the cooling towers through measurements of temperature differential, air/ water flow rate, to enable evaluate specific performance parameters like approach, efficiency etc.

refrigeration system
Refrigeration System

The audit would involve analysis of various parameters like co-efficient of performance (COP), tonnage delivered, effectiveness of the ducting and allied systems, measurement of specific energy consumption, study of refrigerant compressors, chilling units etc.

Further, various measures would be suggested to improve its performance.

boiler operations
Boiler Operations

Study of steam generating systems, their combustion performance, heat balance, air to fuel ratios, blow down losses etc.

Suggest suitable recommendations for improvements.

steam distribution network including traps insulation
Steam Distribution Network (including Traps & Insulation)

Study of steam distribution network including layout of the steam pipelines, estimation of losses etc. to suggest suitable recommendations for improvements.

The steam traps would be checked for its proper functioning.

The study would also include evaluation of the radiation losses, steam leakages and insulation effectiveness.

diesel generator dg sets
Diesel Generator (DG) Sets

Study the operations of DG Sets to evaluate their average cost of power generation, specific energy generation and subsequently identify areas wherein energy savings could be achieved after analysing the operational practices etc. of the DG Sets.

instruments used
Instruments Used
  • Flue Gas Analyser
  • Power Analyser, Tachometer
  • Ultrasonic Flow Meter
  • Trap Man (For Steam Trap Survey)
  • Raytech Gun & Digital Thermometer (Non-contact and Contact type both)
  • Anemometer, pH/TDS/Conductivity meter
  • LUX Meter, Digital Manometer
boilers
Boilers

Observations:

  • Condensate recovery is not being done.
  • Feed water temperature presently is 50C.

Recommendations:

  • Recover condensate to raise feed water temperature to upto 85C
  • Install de-aerator head on feed water tank and recover condensate.
  • Install steam operated condensate recovery pump
refrigeration system46
Refrigeration System

Observations:

  • Pumps connected to silos are of higher capacity of 15 kW.
  • Cooling water pumps of 45 kW are under loaded.
  • Glycol pumps of 15 kW are under loaded.
  • Water cooled condensers have poor performance

Recommendations:

  • Replace 15 kW pumps connected to silos with 11 kW pumps.
  • Install variable frequency drive (VFD) for cooling water pumps to save 40 kW.
  • Install VFD for glycol pumps to save 8 kW.
  • Install air cooled condensers to save 6 kW.
illumination
Illumination

Observations:

  • High pressure mercury vapour (HPMV) lamps are used for street lighting.
  • 36 Watt tubelights with copper chokes are used.

Recommendations:

  • Replace HPMV lamps by High pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps
  • Replace 36 Watt tubelights with T-5 28 Watt with electronic choke in a phased manner.
steam traps condensate
Steam Traps & Condensate

Observations:

  • All steam traps are working properly.
  • But, there is no condensate recovery from steam traps.

Recommendations:

  • Recover the condensate and use it as boiler feed water and thereby increase the boiler feed water temperature.
motive load49
Motive Load

Observations:

  • Diffuser & disposable pumps motors are loaded only 27% & 36% respectively.
  • Boiler feed pump motors are overloaded to 125%.

Recommendations:

  • Running the diffuser pump and disposable pump motors in STAR mode.
  • Checking the condition of boiler feed pumps & repairing the same.
air compressors
Air Compressors

Observations:

  • The loading and unloading pressure of air compressors is 7.5 kg/cm2 and 8.5 kg/cm2 which is high.
  • The air leakages are 37%.

Recommendations:

  • Reducing the loading and unloading pressure to 6 kg/cm2 and 7 kg/cm2 as the working pressure is 6 kg/cm2
  • Plugging the air leakage.
cooling tower
Cooling Tower

Observations:

  • CT fan is operating continuously without taking into account the inlet and outlet temperature variation ( T)

Recommendations:

  • Installation of Automatic Temperature Controller (ATC) on the CT fan
slide52

Types of audit strategy:

  • 3-stage audit:
  • Historical data collection
  • Preliminary survey
  • Detailed investigation and Report
slide53

Types of audit strategy:

  • 4-stage audit:
  • Preliminary survey
  • Walk-through
  • Operator’s input
  • Report
slide54

Types of audit strategy:

  • 5-stage audit:
  • Study and evaluation
  • Detailed real-time measurement
  • Analysis
  • Quantification
  • Report
slide55

Types of audit strategy:

  • 6-stage audit:
  • Meet up with Facility Personnel
  • Site walk-through
  • Discuss with Facility Personnel
  • Analyze historical data
  • Short-term measurement
  • Report
slide56

Types of audit strategy:

  • 10-stage audit:
  • Interview with key Facility Personnel
  • Facility tour
  • Document review
  • Facility inspection
  • Staff interviews
  • Utility analysis
  • Identify/Evaluate feasible ECMs
  • Economic analysis
  • Report
  • Review
slide57

Selected topics in Energy Management:

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism

slide58

Demand-side Management (DSM)

DSM modifies or reduces energy demand by end-users.

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide60

Demand-side Management (DSM)

DSM is mostly used to reduce peak electricity demand, which helps in reducing the number of blackouts and in delaying the construction of new power plants.

DSM is also used for changes that can be made to demands for all types of energy (used transport and industries, and so on).

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide61

Demand-side Management (DSM)

Possible benefits of DSM can also include

- reducing dependency on expensive imports of fuel,

- reducing energy prices, and

- reducing harmful emissions to the environment.

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide62

Demand-side Management (DSM)

  • The main types of DSM activities may be classified in three categories:
  • Energy reduction programmes
  • Load management programmes
  • Load growth and conservation programmes

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide63

Demand-side Management (DSM)

  • Energy reduction programmes—reducing demand through more efficient processes, buildings or equipment:
  • Boilers
  • Steam systems
  • Lighting
  • Energy efficient motors (and drive systems)
  • Compressed air systems
  • Efficient lightings

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide64

Demand-side Management (DSM)

  • Load management programmes—changing the load pattern and encouraging less demand at peak times and peak rates:
  • Load levelling
  • Load control
  • Tariff incentives and penalties

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide65

Demand-side Management (DSM)

Load growth and conservation programmes.

http://africa-toolkit.reeep.org/modules/Module14.pdf

slide66

Selected topics in Energy Management:

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment (ISO 14000 series)

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism

slide67

Selected topics in Energy Management:

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment (ISO 14000 series)

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism

slide68

Exergy Analysis:

First law of thermodynamics states that energy is neither produced nor destroyed.

That is, the energy contained in all of the input streams to a process must be accounted for somewhere in the output streams from the same process or accumulated within the system in which the process is occurring.

An output stream could be a loss to the atmosphere or other heat sink.

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide69

Exergy Analysis:

As a fundamental measure of the thermodynamic deviation of a considered system from its environment, exergy is equal to the maximum amount of work the system can perform when brought into thermodynamic equilibrium with its reference environment.

Unlike energy, exergy is not subject to a conservation law with the exception of ideal or reversible processes.

The exergy consumption during a process is proportional to the entropy created due to irreversibilities associated with the process.

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide70

Exergy Analysis:

The first law (energy) efficiency

= energy of the useful streams leaving the process / the energy of all input streams

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide71

Exergy Analysis:

The first law (energy) efficiency

= energy of the useful streams leaving the process / the energy of all input streams

The second law (exergy) efficiency

= exergy contained in the products of a process

/ the exergy in all input streams

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide72

Exergy Analysis:

The first law (energy) efficiency

= energy of the useful streams leaving the process / the energy of all input streams

The second law (exergy) efficiency

= exergy contained in the products of a process

/ the exergy in all input streams

Exergy is the quality of energy which is destroyed by the irreversibilities in a real process.

Therefore, exergy efficiency < energy efficiency

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide73

Exergy Analysis:

Energy and exergy balances for an unsteady-flow process in a system during a finite time interval:

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide74

Exergy Analysis:

Energy and exergy balances for an unsteady-flow process in a system during a finite time interval:

Since energy is conserved,

Energy input = Energy output + Energy accumulation

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide75

Exergy Analysis:

Energy and exergy balances for an unsteady-flow process in a system during a finite time interval:

Since energy is conserved,

Energy input = Energy output + Energy accumulation

Since exergy (quality of energy) is consumed due to irreversibilities,

Exergy input = Exergy output + Exergy consumption

+ Exergy accumulation

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide76

Exergy Analysis:

Energy and exergy balances for an unsteady-flow process in a system during a finite time interval:

Since energy is conserved,

Energy input = Energy output + Energy accumulation

Since exergy (quality of energy) is consumed due to irreversibilities,

Exergy input = Exergy output + Exergy consumption

+ Exergy accumulation

For any real process, exergy is destroyed or lost.

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide77

Exergy Analysis:

The total exergy of a system E is divided into four components:

physical exergy EPH

kinetic exergy EKN

potential exergy EPT

chemical exergy ECH

E = EPH + EKN + EPT+ ECH

Energy Policy 39 (2011) 2475–2481

slide78

Exergy Analysis:

Process Energy (First Law) Exergy (Second Law)

efficiency (%) efficiency (%)

Residential heater (fuel) 60 9

Domestic water

heater (fuel) 40 2–3

High-pressure

steam boiler 90 50

Tobacco dryer (fuel) 40 4

Coal gasification (high heat) 55 46

Petroleum refining 90 10

Steam-heated reboiler 100 40

Blast furnace 76 46

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide79

Exergy Analysis:

When high-temperature energy resources, such as fossil fuels are used for relatively low-temperature applications (residential heating and domestic hot water), exergy loss is large.

This will make exergy efficiencies much smaller than their respective energy efficiencies.

Therefore, it is important to note that high-temperature energy resources should be used for high-temperature applications.

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide80

Exergy Analysis:

Exergy analysis appears to be a potential tool in:

• addressing the impact of energy resource utilization on the environment,

• furthering the goal of more efficient energy resource utilization,

• determining locations, types and true magnitudes of wastes and losses,

• revealing whether or not and how much it is possible to design more efficient energy systems by reducing the inefficiencies,

• providing a sustainable developments as a result of sustainable supply of energy resources, and

• distinguishing the high-quality and low-quality energy resources.

Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 525–538

slide81

Exergy Efficiencies (%) of Railways in Turkey:

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 1238–1244

slide83

Overall Exergy Efficiency (%) of the Transport Sector in Turkey:

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 1238–1244

slide85

Overall Exergy Efficiency (%) of the Transport Sector:

Exergy

Efficiency is 15% for

OECD in 1990

Exergy

Efficiency is 16% for the World in 1990

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 1238–1244

slide86

Exergy efficiency of solar collectors :

  • Solar collector system Exergy efficiency
  • - glazed PV/T water collector 13.30%
  • coverless PV/T water collector 11–12.87%
  • unglazed PV/T air collector 10.75%
  • (glass-to-glass) PV/T air collector 10.45%
  • - glazed PV/T water collector 8–13%
  • PV array 3–9%
  • unglazed PV/T air collector
  • integrated greenhouse with
  • earth air heat exchanger 5.50%
  • - unglazed PV/T air collector
  • integrated greenhouse 4%
  • - double glazed flat-plate
  • water collector 3.90%
  • - double glazed air heater 2%

Energy and Buildings 2010;42:2184–99

slide87

Overall exergy efficiency of different sectors in Greece in 2000 :

Transport 22%

Residential 34%

Industrial 51.6%

Energy Policy 39 (2011) 2475–2481