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Systems & Control

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  1. Systems & Control Edexcel Product Design - Graphics

  2. Today: Systems & Control • Manufacturing Systems • Computer Integrated Manufacture (CIM) • Robotics & Artificial Intelligence • Flow Charts

  3. Reminders • QA – Quality Assurance • Monitors the quality of a product through its design and development stages through to manufacture • QA is an assurance that the end product has quality • QC – Quality Control • Is the achievement of QA • Uses inspection and testing • TQM – Total quality management • Also called TQC – Total quality control • Integrated into the manufacturing system • QA at every stage of the production process • Eg production team must produce a high quality component that the assembly team know is quality assured and will fit perfectly

  4. Reminders • JIT – just-in-time • Everything is made just-in-time • A pull system • QFD – Quality function deployment • Creating successful products • Incorporates consumer satisfaction • Advantages: • Reduced time to market • Less design modifications • Less design and manufacturing costs • Better quality • Enhanced customer satisfaction

  5. Lines and cells • Production lines • Fixed • Single task • Cells • Flexible • Various required skills, techniques, machinery etc

  6. Manufacturing Systems • Advanced manufacturing technology • When computers are used at every stage of the manufacturing process • Ensures fast, efficient, high quality production 1 of 4

  7. Manufacturing Systems • Quick response manufacturing (QRM) • Makes companies more efficient and profitable • Instead of batch production, ‘flow’ production • Respond to demand, instead of planning for expected demand • Uses TQM, JIT and manufacturing cells (teams) • It’s main aim is to increase flexibility and responsiveness • Teams have specific tasks, but can alter if needed • No excess products are manufactured • Suppliers deliver raw materials directly to the production line • Products are finished and flow directly to a waiting truck for delivery • Pull system according to markets demands 2 of 4

  8. QRM

  9. Manufacturing Systems • Concurrent Manufacturing • All stages of the manufacturing process working together • Does change to one part mean changes to another? • Designs become ‘right first time’ • Reduces product development time • Earlier release of products • Brings together design, manufacturing, project management, technical support, marketing • Communication is vital • Internationally computer networks are essential • Uses QFD – quality function deployment 3 of 4

  10. Manufacturing Systems • Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) • Several machines linked together by a material handling system (robot or conveyor) • Uses CNC • Can produce different products at the same time • High flexibility 4 of 4

  11. FMS continued • Two main features: • Machine flexibility • Whole system produces a different product • Can change the order of the machines • Routing flexibility • Same machine for different products

  12. Computer Integrated Manufacture (CIM) • One step further than FMS • All aspects of the company’s operations (not just manufacture) • Uses computer networks • Business information • Production information • Manufacturing operations • Tasks: • Uses CAD • Planning cost effective workflow • Controlling machines • Business operations – ordering stock, materials and invoicing customers • Relies on computers and data (sometime incompatible)

  13. CIM Systems • Data integration • Product data management (PDM) • Lean manufacturing (including JIT) • CAM, CNC, computer aided quality (CAQ) • Material handling systems • Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) • Automatic guided vehicles (AGVs)

  14. Product data management systems (PDM) • Passes data from design to manufacture • Data: • 3D models • CAD drawings • CNC programs • Advantages: • Reduced time to market • Improved productivity • Improved control

  15. Lean manufacturing & JIT • Manufacturing has no “fat” in the process • Same idea as JIT • No warehouses, materials arrive just when needed • Right materials, components and products arrive at the right time • Reduces waste and overstocking • Manufacture must predict the market

  16. CAM, CNC, computer aided quality (CAQ) • CAM – computer aided manufacture • CNC – computer numerical control • CAQ – Computer aided quality • Coordinate measuring systems • Uses a probe • Finds “zero”

  17. Material handling systems • Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) • Robotic system for sorting, storage and retreival • Uses racking systems • Conveyor belt or truck • Automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) • Uses radio frequency wires in the floor • Or use optical sensors • Computer controlled

  18. Robotics & Artificial Intelligence • Robots on fully automated production and assembly lines/cells • Manipulate and transport parts, tools or implements

  19. Flow Charts • Start/stop • Processes • Decisions • Arrows

  20. Flow Charts • Closed loop • Open loop Start Start Process Process No Decision Process Yes Process Stop Stop

  21. Task • Produce a sheet (title: Manufacturing) with the following information on: • Manufacturing Systems • Computer Integrated Manufacture (CIM) • Robotics & Artificial Intelligence • Flow Charts • Use key points (in YOUR OWN words) • Thin columns with information • Advantages and disadvantages where relevant • Try include images / colours to ease its use