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Overview of Crusades. Focusing on the Effects in this section. Origins of Crusades. Muslims conquer the city of Jerusalem and areas surrounding it. Byzantines lost territory on Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) Emperor Alexius I sends message to Pope Urban II

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overview of crusades

Overview of Crusades

Focusing on the Effects in this section

origins of crusades
Origins of Crusades
  • Muslims conquer the city of Jerusalem and areas surrounding it.
  • Byzantines lost territory on Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks (Muslims)
    • Emperor Alexius I sends message to Pope Urban II
  • Pope Urban II calls for a “Crusade” to recapture the Holy Land (1095 CE)
why pope urban ii wanted it
Why Pope Urban II wanted it…
  • Unite Christianity by taking over Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Reduce warfare in Europe by sending knights on crusades
pope urban ii speech 1095
Pope Urban II Speech (1095)

“Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace

among yourselves and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an

important work for you to do. Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply

the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God.

For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must

hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you

have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of

Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the

Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of

the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed

and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you

permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much

more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as

Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank,

foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to

destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it

meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it.”


Pope Urban II’s Speech continued…

"All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans,

shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of

God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race,

which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of

omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what

reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us,

profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to

wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with

victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long

time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting

against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the

barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now

obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in

both body and soul now work for a double honor. Behold! on this side will be the

sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on

that, his friends. Let those who go not put off the journey, but rent their lands and

collect money for their expenses; and as soon as winter is over and spring comes,

let hem eagerly set out on the way with God as their guide."

why do people in western europe respond and crusade
Why do people in Western Europe respond and CRUSADE?
  • Some believed it was really “God’s Will”
  • Some wanted to plunder the Holy Land
    • For riches and wealth
  • Some wanted to create their own kingdoms
    • For land and power
  • Peasants/Poor believed they were led there by Peter the Hermit
who went on the crusades
Who went on the Crusades?
  • Knights
  • Sons of Nobles in Europe (not the first sons…)
  • People who wanted fame, wealth and power
  • Those who were troublesome to the Kings
  • “Faithful” Peasants and Poor in Europe
1 st crusade 1096 1099 ce
1st Crusade (1096-1099 CE)
  • 1096 CE – Crusaders cross into Asia Minor through Constantinople
  • 1099 CE – Crusaders capture the city of Jerusalem
    • Only successful crusade (temporary success though)
  • 4 Crusader States are established
    • Antioch
    • Tripoli
    • Edessa
    • Jerusalem
problems crusaders faced
Problems Crusaders Faced
  • They are not prepared for the journey ahead
  • Limited knowledge of the land they crossed
  • No real strategy towards capturing and holding Holy Land
other crusades 2 nd 4 th
Other Crusades (2nd – 4th)


  • 2nd Crusade  1146-1149 CE
  • 3rd Crusade  1189-1192 CE
  • 4th Crusade  1202-1206 CE
    • Other minor crusades go on until 1291 CE
      • Including a children’s crusade… 
main effects of crusades
Main Effects of Crusades
  • Weakens the power and prestige of Church
    • Hurts the image and political standing of Catholic Church
  • Kings/High Lords gain more power and wealth
    • Lesser Nobles sell off land/resources to fund crusades
    • Peasants and Serfs gain more rights (some move into towns and cities)
  • Trade and Travel increase in Europe
    • Coined money will become more common in 1200’s
    • Usury Church ban on charging interest (repealed)
    • Italian merchants establish Banks and Bills of Exchange  paper notes that record exchange of money between merchants and money lenders
main effects continued
Main Effects Continued…
  • New cultural ideas and knowledge are spread into Europe
    • Influx of Arab/Greek/Latin accumulation of knowledge
    • One of the causes of the Renaissance in Italy
  • Byzantine Empire is weakened
    • Constantinople is attacked by crusaders during the fourth crusade
  • Legacy of Bitterness between Muslims and Christians created
side effects of the crusades
Side Effects of the Crusades
  • Spain=Reconquista  Began in 1085 CE with Spanish Christians taking over Moors’ Kingdoms
    • Ends in 1492 w/ union of Ferdinand and Isabella
      • Threw the last of the Moors and Jews out of Spain
  • Jewish People are persecuted heavily
    • Many became money-lenders (only profession that were allowed to hold)
    • Any non-Christian is persecuted during this time… 