The Middle Ages The Plague,Catholic Church, Crusades
Pgs 318 to 319 Starting with a Story The Plague A highly infectious disease that spread quickly and affected many. Splotch An irregularly shaped area which was a symptom of the plague. Pores Tiny opening in the skin through which people thought the plague infected the body.
Background: In the middle of the 14th century, a plague killed millions of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. The plague most likely came from Central Asia, where it traveled swiftly along the trade routes heading west. Fleas carried the plague and moved from place to place on rats. The plague quickly reached the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Merchant ships spread the disease even farther, first to Italy and then to the rest of Europe. As you read the following story, imagine that it is 1348 and that you are living in a plague-infested European city.
The year 1348 has been filled with misery for everyone I know. Just last week, my best friend Claire’s aunt died. It was hard for me to listen to her description of her aunt’s death. Claire said her aunt’s armpits had suddenly swelled up. She said they were truly awful to look at—that some of her swellings were as big as apples. After that, black and blue splotches appeared on her arms and legs. They called for a doctor, but he said he could do nothing. Claire’s aunt was dead within three days. I hate to say it, but her death was hardly unusual. It seems like the plague has killed half the people in my town. My parents have done their best to lend a hand to Claire’s family. They help look after the children and see to the cooking and cleaning. They also made arrangements for the funeral. It was difficult to find people willing to take part, but a few close friends did come. I suppose we were lucky that anyone at all came. Nowadays, many of the dead have neither family nor friends to see to their burial. They die alone in their houses, and only the smell of their decaying bodies tells neighbors of their passing. In Siena, where we live, townspeople have begun digging large ditches where the corpses of such people are hastily buried. My Siena was once an orderly and beautiful city. But the plague has killed many of the town’s authorities, and many others have fled. My father has taken steps to protect us from the plague. He nailed thick boards over our windows. He also forbade us to bathe. He says that if our pores are clogged, the disease might have more trouble getting into our bodies. My parents have talked about leaving the city. But they decided, for now anyway, that we should stay and help Claire’s family.
Pgs 318 to 319 • 1. What symptoms of the plague did Claire’s aunt suffer? • 2. Why is Claire’s aunt’s funeral poorly attended? • 3. How has Siena changed as a result of the plague? • 4. What steps has the narrator’s father taken to protect his family?
Pgs 318 to 319 • She suffered from Swelling in the armpits and • discoloration of the skin. • 1. What symptoms of the plague did Claire’s aunt suffer? • 2. Why is Claire’s aunt’s funeral poorly attended? • 3. How has Siena changed as a result of the plague? • 4. What steps has the narrator’s father taken to protect his family? 2. Few people were left to attend the funeral and many were afraid they might catch the disease. 3. Siena was no longer an orderly city, but in chaos since many people have died. 4. The father has nailed boards over their windows and has forbidden his family to take baths.
Pg 334 Click for interactive Spread of the Plague map Norway/Finland ASIA England MONGOL EMPIRE EUROPE 3 2 Kaffa 1346 Genoa 1348 Baghdad 1347 CHINA 1 Alexandria 1347 AFRICA INDIA 1323 1320 1. The plague probably spread from Central Asia, but it is impossible to know for certain. 2. Rats carrying infected fleas traveled with merchants along trade routes. 3. Italian merchants unknowingly brought the plague to Europe.
Terms & Names Define the terms and names. Pgs 321 to 325 • 1. clergy • 2. Pope Gregory VII • 3. Emperor Henry IV • 4. religious order • 5. Francis of Assisi • 6. Thomas Aquinas Use page 323 Use page 323
Terms & Names • People who have priestly authority in the Church. • 1. clergy • 2. Pope Gregory VII • 3. Emperor Henry IV • 4. religious order • 5. Francis of Assisi • 6. Thomas Aquinas 2. 11th century pope who said laypeople, including kings, could no longer appoint people to Church offices. 3. 11th century emperor of the Holy Roman Empire who wanted to have the right to appoint Church offices. 4. Group of people who follow the rules of a monastic order. 5. Founder of the Franciscan order. 6. 13th century Italian religious scholar who said that Classical philosophy could exist in harmony with Christian faith.
Page 322 Pope Clergy in the Roman Catholic Church Cardinals Bishops Priests Monks & Nuns
Conflict Between Monarchs and the Papacy • Pope Gregory VII prohibited lay people from • appointing church officials. 2. Henry IV challenged the pope’s authority which led to conflict between the two of them. 3. In response, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated (removed) Henry IV from the Catholic Church. 4. Henry IV decided to seek forgiveness to regain the support of church officials, nobles and his subjects.
Emperor Henry IV appoints church officials to help run his empire. You are now an official of the church! Yay!!
Henry, you can’t appoint church officials. Only I can. Pope Gregory VII states that only church officials can appoint people to Church offices.
I’m the Emperor! I can do what I want, Pope! Henry IV does not listen to the Pope’s request and continues to appoint people to church positions.
Henry is no longer Catholic. He’s can’t be your king, and he’s going to hell. Pope Gregory VII excommunicates or removes Henry IV from the Catholic Church.
Henry IV visits the Pope to ask for forgiveness but is made to wait for three days in the snow.
I forgive you, Henry! Countess Matilda, Henry’s wife. Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII forgives Emperor Henry IV. Emperor Henry IV
Page 323 • Q1. What was the basis of the conflict between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII?
Page 324 to 325 The Church and Society
1. The Medieval Church played an important role in education by starting Universities which became important centers of learning. Only the sons of nobles attended schools.
2. The Church also started religious orders which are groups of people who live by specific rules and focus on prayer and service to God. Members of religious orders were called monks and nuns.
3. The Catholic Church preserved the Roman language and books. Latin is the language of the Romans
4. St. Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan order and wanted his followers to forsake all property so that they could live like Christ.
5. St. Thomas Aquinas said Roman and Greek philosophy could exist in harmony with Christian faith.
Page 324 to 325 HomeworkThe Church and Society • Nuns in convents often had great control over their • daily lives something very few women had outside the • convents. • 1. Why might the life of nun be appealing to medieval women? • 2. What is a mendicant? • 3. What were the forerunners of universities? • 4. What ideal did Thomas Aquinas persuade church leaders to accept? • 5. Why might St. Francis have wanted his followers to forsake property? 2. Mendicants owned nothing and primarily lived by begging. 3. The cathedrals. 4. Thomas Aquinas agreed that classical philosophy could exist in harmony with Christian faith. 5. He wanted his followers to live like Jesus Christ.
Page 327-331 The Crusades
Battle for Palestine • Muslims known as the Seljuk Turks took control of • Jerusalem in 1071 making Christian pilgrimages to the • Holy Land nearly impossible . 2. In response, Pope Urban II asked Christians to join a military expedition or Crusade from Europe into Palestine (The Holy Land)to retake the Holy Land. 3. During the First Crusade (1096 – 1099) , Christian forces took over the Holy Land and established four Crusader states.
Q1. The route through Rome was a land and water route that required travelers to use boats. Q1. Look at the map on page 327. During the First Crusade, how were the travel needs of people using the route through Rome different from the others?
Muslims Return to Power 4. The Muslim armies were very successful after the First Crusade. 5. During the Second Crusade(1147–1149), Muslim Turks defeated the Crusaders at Damascus but failed to remove all Crusaders from the Holy Land. 6. In 1184, the Muslim leader Saladin unified Muslims and gathered a large army that won many victories and caused the Crusaders to lose Jerusalem. 7. After Jerusalem fell, the pope called for a Third Crusade(1147–1149), which resulted in a truce that allowed Christians to visit Jerusalem.
Q2. Look at the map on page 328. In which Crusade did the largest number of European nations participate? Q3. Which Crusade never reached the Holy Land?
Effects of the Crusades 8. Pilgrims were allowed once again to visit the Holy Land. 9. The exchange of science and medicine from the Islamic world to Europe increased. 10. The growth of trade and towns led to the decline of feudalism. 11. The decline of feudalism led to a rise in interest for people’s rights which resulted in documents like the Magna Carta, which was the first one to protect the rights of people.
Reconquista and Inquisition 12. The Reconquista were wars to remove Muslims from Spain and reunify it under Christian leadership. 13. Inquisition was a Christian court that tried those opposed to the Church’s teachings.
Q5. The Spanish Reconquista moved south. Q5. Look at the map on page 330? In which direction did the Reconquista move?