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Africa in Transition PowerPoint Presentation
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Africa in Transition

Africa in Transition

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Africa in Transition

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    1. Africa in Transition Chapter 5

    2. Chapter Focus Development of African Nationalism and Independence Movements post WWII African nations are working toward the integration of modern and traditional values to create stable societies Political, Economic & Social challenges facing African nations Special Focus: Nigeria & Zimbabwe

    3. Winning Independence Section 1

    4. Winning Independence Explain how nationalism helped to shape modern Africa Describe how African nations won independence Analyze how the colonial past affects modern African nations Key Terms

    5. Nationalism Shapes Modern Africa African Nationalism, early 1900s Sense of pride in and devotion to ones country Grew out of European rule Boundaries & diverse ethnic groups Pan-African Movement Unifying all of Africa Africa for the Africans W.E.B. DuBois & Marcus Garvey

    6. Nationalism Shapes Modern Africa Leopold Sedar Senghor, Senegalese poet Negritude movement encouraged African to value their heritage Strengthened Pan-Africanism Rejected negative view colonial powers held about African cultures Educated in Europe One of the greatest leaders of Pan-Africanism

    7. African Nations Win Independence 1950 Four Independent Nations Liberia, Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa Growth of Independence 1950s-1960s Independence for Ghana Boycott refusal to buy certain goods or services North Africa independence movements Kenyattas role in Kenyas independence Southern Africa Guerrilla warfare small bands of fighters state hit-and-run attacks against a larger power

    8. Colonial Past Affects Modern African Nations Effects of colonial rule on African nations Europeans ruled their colonies with the belief that European cultures were superior Africans desired modern technology & standard of living enjoyed by Europeans High expectations & little preparation Colonial borders created problems New nations had a framework to build upon

    9. TIMELINE Early 1900s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

    10. Key Terms Boycott Guerrilla Warfare Secede Socialism Democratization Multinational Corporation Ethnicity Economic Sanctions

    11. Steps Toward Development Section 2

    12. Steps Toward Development Identify the political challenges that African nations face Discuss how African nations have tried to solve their economic problems Explain how the population explosion strains Africas resources Skill Practice Worksheet, Recognizing Fact & Opinion Enrichment Worksheet, A New Generation of Africans

    13. Political Challenges Civil War 1960 Congo 14 million people, 200 groups, 6 provinces Cause of War regional & ethnic rivalries Katanga province, copper-rich Secede broke away from the Congo 1965 Mobutu Sese Seko Zaire 1997 Laurent Kabila Democratic Republic of the Congo

    14. Political Challenges Civil War (cont.) Ethiopia & Somalia Famine late 1980s, early 1990s Rwanda 1994 refugees Liberia Economy destroyed in early 1990s

    15. Political Challenges One-Party Rule Multi-parties encouraged divisions & wastefulness Reflect of traditional African values Discussion & consensus Tanzania & Julius Nyerere (nyuh RAIR ay) One-party rule could achieve democracy

    16. Political Challenges Military Rule Military to restore order & end rule by corrupt civilian leaders Governments success in developing the nations economy Stability & Progress Democratization move toward multi-party systems

    17. Economic Problems African Socialism Socialism the government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy State decides the basic needs of food, housing, and health care End special privileges Equality Rejects colonialism

    18. Economic Problems Mixed Economies Major goal build factories and produce goods for their own use Reduce dependence on foreign imports Multinational corporations huge business enterprises with branches in many countries Used to obtain capital

    19. Economic Problems Economic Choices & Challenges Improve agriculture Build modern industrial economies Economically self-sufficient End foreign domination

    20. Economic Problems Developing Agriculture Food crops vs. Cash crops Impact of growing population Sever droughts (1970s) Economic Dependence Single crop = Dependence on world market Borrowing = Dept crisis

    21. Population Explosion & Resources Rise in birth rates & Slowed death rate 1990s 763 million (double by year 2025) Large families, tradition Each extra mouth comes attached to two extra hands Problems Schools, Housing & Jobs Crowded cities

    22. Skill Practice Worksheet Recognizing Fact & Opinion

    23. Enrichment Worksheet A New Generation of Africans

    24. Changing Patterns of Life Section 3

    25. Changing Patterns of Life Explain how urbanization is affecting African societies Discuss how the lives of women and rural people are changing Explain why schools are a source for cultural change Daily Life Worksheet A Traditional Healer in Togo In a Namibian School

    26. Effects of Urbanization Changes in the family City & the nuclear family Detachment from ancestors and land Marriage Westernization Benefits & Dangers Religion Islamic leaders Growth of Christian Churches

    27. Womens Lives Women gaining legal rights Own & inherit property (Ethiopia & Kenya) Polygamy outlawed (Cote dIvoire) City Life Opportunity to enter money economy Rural areas Little change to womens lives Main food producers 10-15 hour days completing basic tasks

    28. Rural Patterns Rural areas where most Africans live Continued used of non-mechanized farming tools Desire for modern technology Herding & Fishing societies Cattle = symbol of wealth Motorized boats used to fish Refrigeration allows for distribution to distant markets

    29. Schools and Universities Force of cultural change Governmental support to increase literacy & provide people with job skills Education sense of national unity Problems High drop out rate Economic hardships = budget cuts

    30. Changing Patterns of Life Daily Life Worksheet A Traditional Healer in Togo In a Namibian School

    31. Nigeria Section 4

    32. Nigeria Explain how geography has affected Nigerias economy Analyze how regionalism and nationalism have affected Nigeria Discus why the military took power in Nigeria Describe the economic progress Nigeria has achieved

    33. Nigeria Largest & Riches nations in Africa Most populous 1 out of 6 Africans is Nigerian Powerful Force in West Africa Size Resources Population

    34. Geography Affects Economy Tropical location just north of the Equator Rain forests = lumber industry Savanna & grasslands = farming & herding societies Mineral Resources Tin, iron, & coal Oil most valuable resource

    35. Geography Affects Economy Niger River Nigeria namesake Benue River Irrigation & Transportation Three regions Northern Nigeria Muslim Hausa & Fulani Southwest Yoruba Southeast Ibo 250 Ethnic groups & 12 major languages Ethnicity attachment to ones own ethnic group Regional loyalties

    36. Affect of Regionalism & Nationalism Post-WWII, Nigerian nationalism grew Main regions had political parties that represented the regions major ethnic group Nationalist Leader = Nnamdi Azikiwe Unite & form a nation party 1960 = independence achieved

    37. Affect of Regionalism & Nationalism Tragic Divisions Religious, Economic & Ethnic Civil War Ibo (Southeast) vs. Muslim Hausa-Fulani (North) Ibo want to keep control of rich oil fields 1967 Ibo seceded Independent Republic of Biafra 1970 end of Civil War Regional loyalties remain strong

    38. Military Power in Nigeria Civilian & Military Rule Soldier go, soldier come Since independence, the government has moved back and forth between civilian and military rule Military promise to end corruption & mismanagement 1999 Nigerians allowed to elect a president Olusegun Obasanjo

    39. Economic Progress Civil War disrupted economy 1970s Oil Boom = riches Negatives corruption and increased gap between rich and poor Nigeria in dept Civilian government Low oil prices Unemployment

    40. Economic Progress Industry & Agriculture Growth of industry Cars, steel mills, and petrochemical plants Cash Crops Cotton, palm oil, coca & kola nuts Exports Rubber, coffee, and timber Need for economic reforms

    41. Zimbabwe Section 5

    42. Zimbabwe Identify the geographic features that have shaped Zimbabwe Explain how Zimbabwe achieved independence Describe how Zimbabwe promoted tolerance Main Ideas Worksheet

    43. Geographic Features Small country 11 million in population Important to Southern Africa

    44. Geographic Features Landlocked High plateau, mild climate Regular wet and dry season Cash Crops (tobacco & cotton) Food Crops (corn) Mineral deposits (chromium, coal, copper, nickel, and gold) Excellent roads & railroads Kariba Dam used to harness energy (Zambezi River)

    45. Geographic Features 80 % of people are Shona 19% are Ndebele Limited effects of ethnic rivalries

    46. Independence Ancient gold-trading kingdom 1890s British colony Rhodesia Cecil Rhodes Businessman, imperialism in Africa 1960s independence movement in Africa UN condemns of actions of Rhodesia Economic sanctions imposed called on member nations to stop trading with Rhodesia

    47. Independence 1970s black nationalist groups & guerrilla warfare 1980 nationalists achieved independence Rhodesia renamed Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe urged blacks and whites to set aside differences and work together to rebuild the nation

    48. Tolerance Political tolerance Education textbooks promote unity by discussing the contributions of all ethnic groups Economic Development

    49. Main Ideas Worksheet