Nationalism • Sense of pride in and devotion to one’s country. • Areas of Nationalism: • Southern Africa • Kenya • North Africa • Ghana
Why Nationalism? • Boundaries established by Europeans • Rival groups placed into the same boundaries. • African groups realized to get rid of European rule they would have to work together.
Pan-Africanism • “Africa for Africans” • Unify all of Africa
Leopold Sedar Senghor • Senegalese poet • Leader of the: • Negritude Movement • Asked Africans to value their heritage and support Pan Africanism. Senghor – Greatest leader of Pan Africanism
Africa 1950 • Free States • Liberia • Egypt • South Africa • Ethiopia
World War II • Weakened Imperial Powers • France • Britain • Beginning of the Cold War
New Nations of Africa 1950-1975 • Areas: • Ghana • North Africa • Kenya • Southern Africa
Ghana • Kwame Nkrumah • Organized boycotts against British rule. • Boycott – a refusal to buy certain goods or services. • 1957 – Ghana is the first African State to win independence.
North Africa • Libya; Tunisia; Morocco • Gain independence through peaceful means. • 1962 – 8 Year War • Algeria fights against France for its independence.
Kenya • Jomo Kenyatta • Demanded political and economic reforms from the British • White settlers in Kenya wanted to protect their own rights and retain the ‘status quo.’ • Mau Mau – Armed Resistance • Led by Kenyatta, Mau Mau targeted white settlers
Kenya Independence • 1964 • British withdraw • Jomo Kenyatta • Becomes first President of Kenya
Southern Africa • Portugal refused to give up: • Mozambique • Angola • Nationalists used guerilla warfare. • Guerilla Warfare– small bands of fighters stage hit-and-run attacks against a larger power.
1975 • Angola; Mozambique win independence.
Colonial Legacy • - Little preparation for independence • - Disrupted local leaders and local economies • - Few experienced leaders • - Borders with warring ethnic groups. • + Provided framework and infrastructure for countries. (Bridges, railroads, etc.)
Review • Use “boycott” in a sentence. What other leader have we studied might have used this tactic? • Describe three effects of colonial rule on Africa, which do you believe had the greatest impact (either positive or negative)? 3. Pan-Africanism should be a familiar concept.What was Pan-Africanism and when else have we encountered a similar concept?
Steps Toward Development • What political challenges do African nations face? • How have African nations tried to solve their economic problems? • How has the population explosion strained Africa’s resources?
Steps Toward Development • Secede • Refugee • One Party Rule • Military Rule • Democratization • Socialism • Mixed Economy • Multinational Corporations
Congo • Civil War • 1960 Independence from Belgium
Zaire • Mobutu Sese Seko • Former province of Congo [Katanga] • Copper rich • Secession – to break away
Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo • Laurent Kabila 1997 • Overthrows Seko and establishes the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Civil War • Ethiopia • Somalia • Amongst ethnic groups • Creates: • Instability • Famine • Refugees • Refugee -a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution
One Party Rule • Many parties created divisions • One party rule: • Where there is only one political party. • Reflected traditional values. • Voters may choose: • Different candidates but they are of the same party
Military Rule • Military takes control of government. • Why supported? • Test of government is not to instill democracy, but to develop the economy and create stability (security)
Democratization • A move toward a multi-party system. • 1980’s trend • Ex. • Benin: • A general who had ruled for 19 years loses an election to a civilian candidate.
Economic Systems • Socialism • Government owns and operates major businesses and controls most parts of the economy. • Mixed Economies • a mixture of private and government ownership of major industries/businesses.
Multinational Corporations • Huge enterprises (businesses) with branches in many countries. • Invest in: • Mining • Argiculture • BENEFITS: • Make profits from exporting goods made in Africa. • Create jobs for Africans. • Weaken Africa’s dependence on imported goods.
Agricultural Production • Problem: • Unpredictable rainfall (to rain, or not to rain?) • Most companies make “cash crops” (to export for money) • These crops do not meet the basic needs of Africans. • Independent African Farmers • Do not make a lot of money because many governments of Africa keep (control) the food prices low.
Economic Dependence • Many African nations must import: • Cars • Western Goods • Televisions • Oil • Many imports; less exports. • What does this mean?
Population Explosion • African traditions encourage large families • ½ the people of Africa are under 15 • Challenges: • Resources • Schools • Housing • Food • Conditions of cities.
Review • What political challenges do African nations face? • How have African nations tried to solve their economic problems? • How has the population explosion strained Africa’s resources?
Define: • Secede • Refugee • One Party Rule • Military Rule • Democratization • Socialism • Mixed Economy • Multinational Corporations