CH 13, Sect. 2 – Africa in the Age of Transition. • Portugal was the first European country to enslave Africans. Slaves work on sugar plantations on islands off the coast of Africa. • Demand for slaves went up because of sugar cane production and discovery of the Americas.
Plantations – large agricultural estates. • At first Native American labor was used, but most died from disease and mistreatment. • This resulted in a demand for African slaves to work on the plantations.
1518 – Spain brings the first African slaves to the Americas. Triangular Trade: Europe to Africa = Manufactured goods such as guns, cloth. Africa to the Americas = Slaves Americas to Europe = Raw materials such as tobacco, sugar, cotton.
Estimated as many as 10 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between the 1500’s – 1800’s. • Middle Passage: Journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas. • Brutal conditions on ships. • High death rates from disease, starvation, mistreatment, suicide.
How were slaves obtained: • Europeans traded goods to African kingdoms for their slaves. • As demand went up, African slave traders then raided inland to capture more slaves.
Impact of the slave trade: • Parts of West Africa were depopulated. • Families separated forever. • Warfare between slave traders and African kingdoms to obtain slaves. • Benin – society in W. Africa, culture and art was wiped out by slave trade.
Missionary efforts by Europeans: • Portuguese attempted to spread Christianity to Africans. • The English, Dutch, and French focused only on the slave trade, not converting Africans to Christianity. • As a result, Islam takes hold in N. Africa and parts of W. Africa.