Teaching Methods Zhong Caishun email@example.com 13699529035
What is the conceptual structure of a teaching method? • What are some of the major methods witnessed in the history of language teaching
Changes in language teaching methods throughout history have reflected recognition of the changes in the kind of proficiency learners need.
Approaches and methods • Grammar translation Method • Direct method • Situational/oral • Audiolingual • The total physical response • The silent way • Suggestopedia • Community language learning • The natural approach • Communicative approach • Task-based language teaching • Competency-based instruction • Cooperative learning • Whole language approach • Multiple intelligence
Grammar translation method • Objectives • To be able to read literature written in the target language • To be able to translate from one language to another • To develop reading and writing skill
Principal Characteristics Grammar Translation is a way of learning a language by firstlyanalyzing its grammar rules, and thenapplying this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking and listening. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used, and words are taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and memorization. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language, and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of this method. Grammar Rules Target Language Translation
Principle Characteristics Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation, because of "the high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracy which, as well as having an intrinsic moral value, was a prerequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written examinations that grew up during the century" (Howatt 1984: 132, cf. Jack C. Richards & Theodore S. Rodgers, 1986,4). Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercises. The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the foreign language and the student's native language. ----Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.Cambridge: Cambridge University Presspp.3-4.
Application: Typical Techniques • (1) Translation of a Literary Passage • (2) Reading Comprehension Questions • (3) Antonyms/Synonyms • (4) Cognates • (5) Deductive Application of Rule • (6) Fill-in-the-blanks • (7) Memorization • (8) Use Words in Sentences • (9) Composition
Shortcomings Wrong idea of what language is Lead to Less learners’ motivation or frustration for learners "a tedious experience of memorizing endless lists of unusable grammar rules and vocabulary and attempting to produce perfect translations ofstilted or literary prose." ---from (Richards& Rodgers1986 p.4). "It is a method for which there is no theory. There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to relate it to issues in linguistics, psychology, or educational theory."(ibid.p.5)
Advantages of GTM • An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure • Few demands on teachers • Least stressful for students
Background • In the late 19th century in Europe, for economic development, the cross-language communication became more frequent. As a result, there was an increasing demand on foreign languages learning and oral communication became the main goal of foreign language teaching. • First introduced in France and Germany. • Berlitz (Maximilian D. Berlitz,1852-1921) used extensively in Rhode Island, USA, and opened the first language school.
Objectives • Learn how to communicate in the target language- learn to think in the target language. • Correct pronunciation • Emphasize listening and speaking. • Think in target languages. No native language. No translation. • Learning basic sentences, introducing daily life.
Rationale of DM • First language learning process (1) No grammar (2) No mother tongue (3) No translation (4) Postponement of printed word (5) Postponement of written word
Rationale of DM • Linguistic theory • Strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology. • Language is primarily spoken, not written. • The basic unit of a language is sentence. • Language is learned through communication.
Rationale of DM • Learning theory • Emphasising vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations. • Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids. • Direct communication: as baby learning mother tongue. • Imitation: repetition and practice • Association: e.g.: hand – arm, shoulder, foot, leg… • Grammar is taught inductively: Ss are presented with examples.
Teaching model Kelly’s 5 steps of teaching: • Preparation: review previous lesson. • Presentation: introduce new lesson. • Association: associate previous and new lessons. • Systematization: systematize the new lesson in certain situation. • Application: practice
Techniques • Reading loud • Question and answer exercise • Getting students to self-correct • Conversation practice • Fill-in-the-blank exercise • Dictation • Map drawing • Paragraph writing
Role of the teacher/ students • Teacher centered. Student role is less passive than in GTM. • T/S are partners. • Teacher is the only demonstrator. He/she never translates but demonstrates the meaning through the use of realia, pictures or pantomime.
Activities–Berlitz School(1) • Never translate: demonstrate. • Never explain: act. • Never make a speech: ask questions. • Never imitate mistake: correct. • Never speak with single words: use sentences. • Never speak too much: make Ss speak much.
Activities –Berlitz School(2) • Never jump around: follow your plan. • Never go too fast: keep the pace of the Ss. • Never speak too slowly: speak normally. • Never speak too quickly: speak naturally. • Never speak too loudly: speak naturally. • Never be impatient: take it easy.
Advantage of DM • An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively.
Disadvantage of DM • Difficult to implement in public secondary school education • Time-wasting • Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language
Oral-Situational Approach Developed in Britain and popular between the 1930s and 1960s
Main difference between DM and OSA Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasn’t.
Main difference between ALM &OSA Oral-Situational Approach doesn’t mention about reinforcement, ALM does.
Purpose Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the way children acquire L1
Characteristic ˙Start from spoken language ˙Avoid errors ˙Teacher-centered ˙Focus on Listening and speaking ˙Chosen the vocabulary ˙The first method uses structural syllabus
Typical Procedure ˙Teacher gave a topic ˙Demonstrate with teaching aids ˙Key word changed
Advantages with using OSA ˙Bring the reality situation in the classroom ˙Scheduled progress
Disadvantages with using OSA ˙Turn students into parrots ˙Boring and mindless ˙Reduce the motivation
The Audiolingual Method ˙Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA ˙Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s
Audiolingual • Objective • Focus on students’ pronunciation, and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills • Teaching model • Stimulus-response-reinforcement model (imitation, patterned drilling, substitution) • Language and Learning theory • Structuralism/Behaviorism • Role of the teacher and students • The controller and the controlled
Teaching procedures • （1）hear a dialogue • （2）repeat the dialogue • （3）key words or structures changed • （4）practice substitutions in the pattern drills
Features • （1） Imitation • （2） repetition • （3） Positively reinforced • （4） Over learn • *Emphasize in the “Form”, not the “Meaning”
Criticism • Disadvantages • It fails to address the context and function of language. • It banish all forms of language processing that help students sort out new language information in their own minds. • Turn Students into parrots • Boring and mindless • Reduce the motivation • advantages • Allows Students to communicate quickly • Students became good at pattern
Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966) founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University, California, USA
The Purpose To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative sentences.
The Characteristic （1）retention （2）Direct commands （3）No stress （4）Listen first *Emphasize in the “Meaning”, not the “Form”
Typical Procedure in a TPR Course （1）input （2）comprehension （3）express
Advantages with using TPR ˙Fun. ˙Memorable. ˙Good for kinesthetic learners. ˙No matter the class size. >>>
Advantages with using TPR ˙Work well with mixed-ability classes. ˙No requirement for many preparation or materials. ˙Effective with young learners. ˙Involves both left and right-brained learning
Disadvantages with using TPR ˙Students feel shy ˙Less useful for upper levels ˙overuse TPR
Background In the 1960s, both Behaviorism (psychological foundation) and Structuralism (linguistic foundation) were attacked by linguists and psychologists. • Behaviorism was followed by Cognitive Psychology. • Structuralism was followed by Transformational-generative linguistics.
Theoretical foundation Transformational generative grammar: Language learning is not the outcome of habit formation (Behaviorism). It is the process of creative rule formation or discovery. Theory internalized grammar of a language – Competence – enables one to create and understand totally new sentences. Cognitive psychology Human is creative, so mimicry, memorization, repetition and parrot learning (Behaviorism) do not lead to real learning