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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 England Discovers Its Colonies: Empire, Liberty, and Expansion Web

  2. Significant Demographic Differences among the Colonies • Sex ratio more equal in the Chesapeake than in the Sugar islands • Life expectancy longer in the Chesapeake than in the sugar islands • New England was one of the healthiest places on earth • Sex ratio approached equality • Early marriages and large families • Caribbean colonies dominated by young men’ • New England dominated by grandfathers • West Indies had slave majority by 1700 • Middle Atlantic colonies most ethnically diverse

  3. 1640s as Tumultuous Time for England’s Colonies • Dutch seized control of trade in and out of English West Indies and Chesapeake colonies • Only Virginia had royal governor • Indian Wars almost destroyed New England, New Netherland, and Maryland in mid-1640s • Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven founded the New England Confederation in 1643 as defensive alliance

  4. Mercantilism as Applied to England’s Colonies after 1650 • Power derived from a Nation’s wealth • Colonies were necessary for economic growth • Nations had to control the commerce of their colonies • First Navigation Act, 1651 • Rules on which goods could enter English ports on which ships • Rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships • Generated opposition in the colonies

  5. Mercantilism as Applied to England’s Colonies after 1650(cont.) • Navigation Act of 1660 • All colonial trade had to be carried on English ships • New rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships • Enumerated commodities that could be shipped from the colony of origin only to England or another English colony • Staple Act of 1663 • Regulated goods going to colonies • Plantation Duty Act of 1673 • Designed to guarantee adherence to rules on enumerated commodities • Overall, Navigation Acts were tremendously successful at displacing the Dutch and establishing English hegemony over the Atlantic trade

  6. Consequences of Colonies for Indian Societies • Effects of European diseases • Mourning wars and tribal adoptions • Integration of European materials and products into Indian life • Missionary efforts • Most pronounced in New England

  7. Metacom’s (King Philip’s) War, 1675-76 • Began with simple confrontation in Puritan frontier town of Swansea and became all out war • Pitted Massachusetts and Connecticut against Wampanpags and Narragansetts • Indians had firearms and fought fiercely • Colonists attacked even the settlements of Christian Indians • Colonists eventually won, but only with help of Mohawks and Mohegans • Metacom killed, hundreds of his supporters sold into West Indian slavery

  8. Unrest in Virginia • Indian War, 1675 • Began as minor conflict with Doegs; came to involve Sisquehannocks as well • Colonial government unable to quickly settle the conflict • Governor William Berkeley favored defense • Colonists wanted to attack • Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676 • Stemmed from frontier dissatisfaction with lack of government action • Crushed by colonial government, but only at high cost • Revealed difficulty of managing the frontier

  9. Increasing English Control over the Colonies • Lords of Trade established in 1675 • To enforce the Navigation Acts and administer the colonies • West Indies first to feel greater English control • Crown controlled governors and upper legislature houses • Precedents established there applied elsewhere • Dominion of New England 1686

  10. Increasing English Control over the Colonies (cont.) • Included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and both Jerseys • No self-government • Religious toleration imposed on the Puritans • Undermined by Glorious Revolution in England • Abolished in 1691 with new colonial charters that guaranteed representative government

  11. Salem Witch trials • Spring and Summer of 1692 • Eventually involved accusations against 150 individuals • Almost two dozen executed, all of whom professed their innocence • Of the 50 who confessed to witchcraft, none were executed • Ended only when Governor’s wife was Accused of witchcraft

  12. New England System for Colonial Government in the 1690s • Royal government became the norm • Navigation Act, 1696 • Plugged loopholes in early laws • Extended to America the English system of vice admiralty courts • Board of Trade established, 1696 • Powers almost wholly advisory • Act of Union, 1707 united England and Scotland • Implications for trade with the American colonies • Created system of imperial federalism that existed until American Revolution

  13. The Pueblo Revolt in Spanish Empire in New Mexico • Greatest challenge to Spanish position in North America • Drought and famine prompted a return to traditional worship in 1675 • Full-scale revolt in 1680 killed 400 of the 23,000 Spaniards in New Mexico and destroyed every Spanish building in the province • Fighting continued until 1693, with heavy losses for the Pueblos

  14. New France’s Relations with the Indians • Hoped to erect a friendly Algonquian shield against the Iroquois • South Algonquian help by providing firearms, brandy, and other European goods • Iroquois negotiated a peace treaty in 21701 • Success with Indians rested on intelligent negotiation, not force

  15. Life in the English Colonies • Abandoned rigid inheritance and familial patterns of England • Adhered to patriarchal family and society structure • Households interdependent within society, though each strove for self-sufficiency • Householders exerted independence in larger political society • Independence influenced military affairs as few felt compelled to serve unless it served their own interests

  16. Colonial Warfare in the Americas • French and Spanish empires fighting mainly to survive • New Englanders calling repeatedly for conquest of New France • King William’s War (1680-16977) • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) • Halted English settlement in New England and the Carolinas • Westward thrust remained strong in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia Web